Talk:Infiltration

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Infiltration tests must be undertaken at the location, depth and with a head of water that replicates the proposed design.

Suggested safety factors to be applied to measured percolation rate when designing infiltration facilities
CatchmentThe land draining to a single reference point (usually a structural BMP); similar to a subwatershed, but on a smaller scale. area Consequence of failure
No damage or inconvenience Minor damage or inconvenience to external structures (e.g. ponding in parking lot) Significant damage to buildings or infrastructure (e.g. flooding damage)
<100 m2 1.5 2 10
100 - 1000 m2 1.5 3 10

Example

Where the mean infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. measured at the proposed bottom elevation of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls. is 30 mm/hr, and the mean infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. measured in an underlying soil horizon within 1.5 m of the bottom is 12 mm/h: \[ratio=\frac{q_{bottom}}{min\ q_{within 1.5m}}\ =\ \frac{30}{12}\ =2.5\]

From the table the SCF is 3.5, and the design infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. can be calculated: \[q'=\frac{q}{SCF}\ =\ \frac{30}{3.5}=\ 8.6\ mm/hr\]

Infiltration Testing

  • Double ring infiltrometer
  • Single Ring Infiltrometer
  • Constant-head well permeameter
  • Falling-head well permeameter
  • Cased-borehole
  • Falling Head Test
  • Constant Head Test
  • BasinGround depression acting as a flow control and water treatment structure, that is normally dry. Flooding Test

The preferred testing period is during April and May. If testing is conducted between June 1 and December 1, the soil should be soaked for 24 hours prior, to simulate field saturated conditions.[1]

  • If uniform soil texture is observed in the proposed location, at least three percolation test holes should be prepared. If the soil texture changes within the area, make at least two test holes in each soil texture. All test holes should be uniformly spaced across the proposed area.
  • Test holes should be between 150 - 200 mm in diameter, and penetrate to the depth of the proposed BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls.. Observations should be made on the extracted soil and variations recorded.
  • The lowest 300 mm and the bottom of the test pit should be scarified, and the loose material removed.
  • A mesh bag containing about 1 L of pea gravel may be lowered into the pit, to prevent scouring of the base. Attaching a line to the bag allows it to be removed and reused.
  • Carefully pour 6 L of clean water into the base of the pit. A hose is recommended to prevent washing out or erosion of the sides.
  • In sandy soils, where half the depth of water percolates within 30 minutes. Otherwise, calculate the infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour.

The infiltration rate used to design an infiltration BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls. (e.g.infiltration trench or bioretention) must incorporate a safety correction factor that compensates for potential reductions in soil permeability.

These may be due to:

  • compaction or smearing during construction,
  • gradual accumulation of fine sedimentsSoil, sand and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs, rivers and harbors, destroying fish-nesting areas and holes of water animals and cloud the water so that needed sunlight might not reach aquatic plans. Careless farming, mining and building activities will expose sediment materials, allowing them to be washed off the land after rainfalls. over the lifespan of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls., and
  • uncertainty in measured values when less permeable soil horizons exist within 1.5 metres below the proposed bottom elevation of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls..

The measured infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. (q, mm/hr) at the proposed bottom elevation of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls. must be divided by a safety correction factor (SCF) to calculate the infiltration coefficient. To select a safety correction factor, calculate the ratio of the mean (geometric) measured infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. at the proposed bottom elevation of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls. to the rate in the least permeable soil horizon within 1.5 metres below the bottom of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls.. Based on this ratio, a safety correction factor is selected from the Table below. Where the soil horizon is continuous within 1.5 metres below the proposed bottom of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls., the mean infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. measured at the bottom elevation of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls. should be divided by a safety correction factor of 2.5 to calculate the design infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour..

Safety correction factors for calculating design infiltration rates[2]
Ratio of mean measured infiltration rates Safety Correction Factor
≤ 1 2.5
1.1 to 4.0 3.5
4.1 to 8.0 4.5
8.1 to 16.0 6.5
16.1 or greater 8.5


Where the mean infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. measured at the proposed bottom elevation of the BMPBest management practice. State of the art methods or techniques used to manage the quantity and improve the quality of wet weather flow. BMPs include: source, conveyance and end-of-pipe controls. is 30 mm/h, and the mean infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. measured in an underlying soil horizon within 1.5 metres of the bottom is 12 mm/h: \[ratio=\frac{q_{bottom}}{min\ q_{within 1.5m}}\ =\ \frac{30}{12}\ =2.5\]

From the table the SCF is 3.5, and the design infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. can be calculated: \[q'=\frac{q}{SCF}\ =\ \frac{30}{3.5}=\ 8.6\ mm/hr\]


Minnesota say 2 [3] Pennsylvania say 3 [4]

CIRIA say 2-3 for low risk sites [5]
  1. http://www.extension.umn.edu/environment/housing-technology/moisture-management/how-to-run-a-percolation-test/index.html
  2. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2004. Conservation Practice Standards. Site Evaluation for Stormwater Infiltration (1002). Madison, WI.
  3. Design criteria for infiltration. (2018, February 14). Minnesota Stormwater Manual, . Retrieved 00:16, March 14, 2018 from https://stormwater.pca.state.mn.us/index.php?title=Design_criteria_for_infiltration&oldid=35583.
  4. CRC for Water Sensitive Cities. (2015). Adoption Guidelines for Stormwater Biofiltration Systems: Appendix C - Guidelines for filter media in stormwater biofiltration systems.
  5. Ballard, B. W., Wilson, S., Udale-Clarke, H., Illman, S., Scott, T., Ashley, R., & Kellagher, R. (2015). The SuDS Manual. London.