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Blue roofs

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[[File:Blue roof concept.jpg|thumb|Conceptual diagram of flow control drain cover type blue roof/ rooftop detention]]
Blue roofs can be a very economical and low maintenance way to manage unwanted undesirable rainwater on a flat roof. For rooftop retention on moderately sloped roofs, a [[green roof]] is going to be a better choice. On steeply sloped roofs, the best plan would be [[rainwater harvesting]], or diverting roof leaders to a landscape integrated LIDis a more appropriate alternative.
==Overview==
Blue roofs, or rooftop detention is a popular stormwater management option for many developmentsflat roof buildings, particularly within the industrial, commercial and institutional (ICI) sector. The appeal is the relatively low cost and simplicity of modelling and forecasting performance.
{{textbox|Blue roofs are ideal for:
*Sites without significant space at ground level for infiltrationpractices,
*Zero-lot line projects with outdoor amenity requirements}}
*May not require additional sewer connections,
*Easy to retrofit if structural support and waterproofing are adequate,
*Relatively low costcompared to green roofs (no vegetation requirements),*Potential for evaporative cooling and reduction of urban heat island effect.
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*MUST Must be regularly inspected and maintained,
*Limited application on sloped roofs or sites with small building footprints,
*Do not provide any co-benefits such as habitat creation or air quality improvements associated with vegetated practices,
Because all roofs in Canada must be designed to support peak snow loads, this provides capacity for supporting an equivalent weight of ponded water. The Ontario building code permits designers to assume that snow and water loads are not cumulative, up to a maximum depth of 150 mm (water equivalent), if precautions are taken to prevent flooding by providing a sufficient number of roof drains with overflows. It is therefore uncommon for roof water detention systems to be designed to permit more than 150 mm of water to accumulate. This also means that these systems can be retrofitted onto existing roof structures that have been designed to support conventional snow loads.<ref>Richard Hammond (2017). Evaluating Green and Blue Roof Opportunities in Canadian Cities. UWSpace. http://hdl.handle.net/10012/11463</ref>
The Ministry of Transportation do not currently permit blue roofs to form part of a SWM plan owing to concerns over long term maintenance; this affects relatively few projects<ref>Ontario Ministry of Transportation. (2016). Stormwater Management Requirements for Land Development Proposals. Retrieved March 7, 2018, from http://www.mto.gov.on.ca/english/publications/drainage/stormwater/section8.shtml#controls</ref>. The concerns arise from instances where building operators have found outlet control structures blocked with leaves or other debris. Without understanding the purpose of the deviceblue roof systems and flow control drains, these devices have been removed to prevent recurrence of the blockage. A study in New York City found that a modular system of trays outperformed an outlet flow control device in stormwater management<ref>Bloomberg, M., & Strickland, C. H. (2012). NYC Green Infrastructure Plan: 2012 Green Infrastructure Pilot Monitoring Report. New York. Retrieved from http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/pdf/green_infrastructure/2012_green_infrastructure_pilot_monitoring_report.pdf</ref>. It might reasonably be expected that a modular system would present fewer opportunities for complete failure from a single action, either through clogging or breakage of an a storage element. ==Smart Design==Blue roofs can also be fitted with smart controls and electrically operated valves to regulate water discharging from the roof. The electrically operated valves can be tied to predictive weather algorithms to forecast incoming rain or snow events as well as extreme heat days. Based on the weather forecast, valves may be opened and closed to accommodate additional rain or snow loads. When coupled with a rainwater harvesting system, blue roofs increase rainwater storage capacity to meet non-potable water demand (ie. toilet flushing or irrigation) without the need to oversize tanks. Rainwater harvesting tanks with smart controls are able to coordinate with blue roofs to draw water from the roof when the tank water level is low to meet demand and offset municipal potable water use.
==Blue roofs in the treatment train==
Blue roofs can be used in combination with [[green roofs]] by employing a scaffold system to keep the vegetation rooting layer out of the ponded water. Blue roofs could also be employed in combination with a [[rainwater harvesting]] system which had has daily usage demanddemands. This Coupling blue roofs with rainwater harvesting systems could offset some part of the cistern capacityrequirements and supplement tank capacity deficiencies
==For Review==
https://www.state.nj.us/dep/stormwater/bmp_manual/NJ_SWBMP_9.8.pdf
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