no edit summary
Check dams are small dams or weirs constructed across a drainage ditch, swale, or channel to lower the speed of concentrated flows for a certain design range of storm events and to promote infiltration.
*may be constructed of any resilient and waterproof material, including: rock gabions, earth berms, coarse aggregate or rip-rap, concrete, metal or pre-treated timber.
Rocks used in check dams should have median diameter 25 - 75 mm. *for enhanced swales may be up to 0.6 m in height; the maximum design depth of ponded water should be ≤ 0.6 m.
*designed for higher flow velocities should have spillways incorporated into their profile, to direct water to the centre of the swale.
*are usually installed between 10-20 m along the swale. The spacing of dams should not exceed the horizontal distance from the toe of the upstream dam to the same elevation on the downstream dam.
#The gradient between the top of the lower check dam and the bottom of the upper one is called "compensation gradient" which is the future or final effective gradient of the swale. It is formed when material carried by flowing water fills the check dams to spillway level.
#Dams are usually installed between 10-20 m along the swale. The spaces between check dams can be determined according to the compensation gradient and the effective height of the dams. They are distributed such that the crest of each dam is at approximately the same elevation as the toe of the upstream dam. If the slope along the swale varies, so should the distance between the dams.
#The compensation gradient of enhanced swales must be < 1 % (0.5% preferred).
The objective of these design recommendations are to maximize the distribution of ponded water along the whole BMP. Detailed design may require iteration of the dam heights and distances along each section of a long swale.