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Climate change

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Simultaneous benefits for periods of drought and periods of excess water
==Simultaneous benefits for periods of drought and periods of excess water==
“Approaching urban climate adaptation to extreme events in an integrated way, shows that we are dealing with a temporal variation in water surplus (pluvial flooding) and water shortage events (drought and heat stress). Linking water surplus and water shortage events is required in order to buffer temporal variations. To this end storage has to be created [35]. Sufficient storage capacity helps to prevent heavy rainfall events to cause pluvial flooding. In addition, the water stored serves as supply for evaporative cooling to prevent heat stress in times of heat waves and as water source to prevent drought in times of no or little precipitation.” <ref>Voskamp , I. M., and F. H M Van de Ven . 2015. “Planning Support System for Climate Adaptation: Composing Effective Sets of Blue-Green Measures to Reduce Urban Vulnerability to Extreme Weather Events.” Building and Environment 83. Elsevier Ltd:159–67.</ref>*“For combined scenarios of high climate change and high urban development, there is a projected increase in winter flows of up to 71 percent and decrease in summer flows of up to 48 percent.”  cited in <ref>Praskievicz , S, and H Chang 2012  shows . 2011. “Impacts of Climate Change and Urban Development on Water Resources in the Tualatin River Basin, Oregon.” Annals of the extremes Association of climate changeAmerican Geographers 101 (2):249–71. 933400604\rDoi 10.1080/00045608.2010.544934.</ref>*“We find that in situ and modeling methods are complementary, particularly for simulating historical and future recharge scenarios, and the in situ data are critical for accurately estimating recharge under current conditions. Observed (2011–2012) and future (2099–2100) recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench (1750–3710 mm/yr) were an order of magnitude greater than beneath the irrigated lawn (130–730 mm/yr). Beneath the infiltration trench, recharge rates ranged from 1390 to 5840 mm/yr and averaged 3410mm3410 mm/yr for El Nino years (1954–20121954 – 2012) and from 1540 to 3330mm3330 mm/yr and averaged 2430 mm/yr for La Nina years. We demonstrate a clear benefit for recharge and local groundwater resources using LID BMPs. (<ref>Michelle E. Newcomer et al , Jason J. Gurdak; Leonard S. Sklar; Leora Nanus; 2014). “Urban Recharge beneath Low Impact Development and Effects of Climate Variability and Change.” Water Resources Research, 1716–34.<ref>
==Flow volume and erosion reduction==

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