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Climate change

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Climate Trends in Ontario
*Climate change should be considered in future planning but the uncertainty in estimates makes it harder for those involved
*“How to adapt cities to climate change is emerging as one of the greatest challenges that spatial planners will face in the 21st Century (Measham et al., 2011; Perry, 2015).” cited in Matthews et al 2015
 
==Climate Trends in Ontario==
===Observed to date===
* IDF: Changing rainfall intensities affect stormwater runoff timing, peak rates and volumes; Methods have been relying on static IDF curves
* Increased frequency of 12% and increase intensity of 16% of extreme precipitation events for 1958 - 2007 for the US Northeastern region <ref>Larson, L, Nicholas Rajkovich, and Clair Leighton. 2011. “Green Building and Climate Resilience: Understanding Impacts and Preparing for Changing Conditions.” University of Michigan, 260. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:GREEN+BUILDING+AND+CLIMATE+RESILIENCE+Understanding+impacts+and+preparing+for+changing+conditions#0.</ref>
* “Percent changes in the amount of precipitation falling in very heavy events (the heaviest 1 %) from 1958 to 2012 for each region. There is a clear national trend toward a greater amount of precipitation being concentrated in very heavy events, particularly in the Northeast US (71 %) and Midwest US (37 %).” <ref>Melillo, Jerry M, T C Richmond, Gary W Yohe, and US National Climate Assessment. 2014. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment. US Global Change Research Program. Vol. 841. https://doi.org/10.7930/j0z31WJ2.</ref>
* “As for the temporal trends, significant warming trends are detected throughout the province of ON and the overall trend in annual mean temperature varies largely between 0.01 and 0.02 ∘C year–1. Increasing trends in annual rainfall (by 1 – 3 mm/year) and total precipitation (by 1 – 4 mm/year) are detected at the vast majority of gauged stations, but no significant trends in annual snowfall are identified at most of the stations.”<ref>Wang, Xiuquan, Guohe Huang, and Jinliang Liu. 2016. “Observed Regional Climatic Changes over Ontario, Canada, in Response to Global Warming.” Meteorological Applications 23 (1):140–49. https://doi.org/10.1002/met.1541.</ref>
* “Extreme downpours are now happening 30 percent more often nationwide than in 1948. In other words, large rain or snowstorms that happened once every 12 months, on average, in the middle of the 20th century now happen every nine months. Moreover, the largest annual storms now produce 10 percent more precipitation, on average.”  Madsen et al 2012 a study in the US
* “Extreme weather events including prolonged heat waves, torrential rainstorms, windstorms, and drought have increased throughout Ontario in recent years (Ontario, 2011). The frequency of very hot days (above 32°C) is expected to increase by 2.4-fold in Ontario by the late 21st century (Vavrus and Dorn 2009)”.  cited in Thunder Bay, 2015
* “Increases in the frequency and magnitude of extreme rainfall events have been documented in New York State (Fig. 1). These changes are among the largest seen within the United States (DeGaetano 2009). Climate change projections suggest that these increases will continue (Frumhoff et al. 2007).”  in Tryhorn 2010
 
===Projected===
*Increase in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events between now and 2100 (Larson et al 2011)
* “The analysis indicates that there is likely to be an obvious warming trend with time over the entire province. The increase in average temperature is likely to be varying within [2.6, 2.7]8C in the 2030s, [4.0, 4.7]8C in the 2050s, and [5.9, 7.4]8C in the 2080s. Likewise, the annual total precipitation is projected to increase by [4.5, 7.1]% in the 2030s, [4.6, 10.2]% in the 2050s, and [3.2, 17.5]% in the 2080s. Furthermore, projections of rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) curves are developed to help understand the effects of global warming on extreme precipitation events. The results suggest that there is likely to be an overall increase in the intensity of rainfall storms. Finally, a data portal named Ontario Climate Change Data Portal (CCDP) is developed to ensure decision-makers and impact researchers have easy and intuitive access to the refined regional climate change scenarios.”  in Wang et al 2015
* “Some researchers, however, have demonstrated that the volume (Kuchenbecker et al. 2010, in Germany; cited in Bendel et al. 2013), frequency (Bendel et al. 2013, in Germany; Fortier and Mailhot 2014, May and October in Canada) or mean annual duration (Fortier and Mailhot 2014,in Canada) of CSOs should increase in the future climate. Logically, these increases will cause water quality to deteriorate in urban rivers – impacts that could be more severe as a result of increased water temperature.”  St-Hilaire et al 2016
** For York Region: “• Of all temperature variables, the minima are anticipated to increase the most significantly by the 2050s in all seasons and on an annual basis (i.e. minimum temperature, average minimum temperatures) • Precipitation is expected to increase annually and over most months; however, may in fact remain relatively consistent or decrease compared with the current climate for the summer season • Extreme events are anticipated to become more frequent and more extreme. • Extreme heat indicators demonstrate that the number of days by the 2050s experiencing extreme temperatures will increase significantly. On the other hand extreme cold events are anticipated to decrease correspondingly by the 2050s, where the number of days exhibiting extremely cold temperatures could decrease • Extreme precipitation events are likely to increase in magnitude and in frequency, particularly in the summer time when convective activity is highest in and surrounding York Region. The future trend of extreme precipitation intensity; however, is unclear. It is recommended that a conservative approach should be taken in planning and adapting for extreme precipitation events. • The growing season in York Region is expected to lengthen by over 30 days by the 2050s. With this, the start date will shift earlier and the end date will shift later in the year. It is less certain, but more likely than not, that drier conditions will be present throughout the growing season in the 2050s as a result of no significant increase in precipitation over summer months and significant increases in temperatures.”  OCC et al, 2016
* “If [winter] precipitation falls as rain instead of snow, which may actually occur more frequently in temper- ate regions with climate change, phosphorus concentrations in winter have the potential to be equivalent to those observed in other seasons due to the ubiquitous impacts of runoff events.”  Long et al 2014, a study done in Hamilton, ON
* “Another potential impact of climate change on summer nutrient conditions that has been discussed in the literature is an increase of summer soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentrations in creeks during low flow conditions due to temperature-dependent release from riverine sediments.”  Long et al 2014
* “Dominguez et al. (2012) found increases in the intensity of 20- and 50-year return period winter precip- itation events over the western United States, while over Canada, Mailhot et al. (2012) showed that the intensity of annual maxima precipitation would increase, with the largest increases for Ontario, the Prairies and Southern Quebec.”  from Guinard et al 2015
* “The hydrological response to climate change was investigated through stormwater runoff volume and peak flow, while the water quality responses were investigated through the event mean value (EMV) of five parameters: turbidity, conductivity, water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH. First flush (FF) effects were also noted. Under future climate scenarios, the EMVs of turbidity increased in all storms except for three events of short duration. The EMVs of conductivity were found to decline in small and frequent storms (return period <5 years); but conductivity EMVs were observed to increase in intensive events (return period ½5 years). In general, an increasing EMV was observed for water temperature, whereas a decreasing trend was found for DO EMV. No clear trend was found in the EMV of pH. In addition, projected future climate scenarios do not produce a stronger FF effect on dissolved solids and suspended solids compared to that produced by the current climate scenario.”  He et al 2011
* “The potential consequences of climate change for P cycling in streams include (i) increasing prevalence of droughts and extreme summer low flows causing a reduction in baseflow dilution capacity, increased P retention during summer as residence times increase and a greater frequency of anoxia (Caruso, 2002; Van Vliet and Zwolsman, 2008), (ii) changes in magnitude and frequency of extreme high flows and floods causing reduced river P retention capacity and net in-channel loss of P under eutrophic conditions, greater seasonal variability in runoff volumes, carbon and nutrient inputs from terrestrial sources (e.g. more winter runoff and less summer runoff), scouring of streams and more frequent flushing of storm sewer overflows (Newson and Lewin, 1991; Schindler, 1997; Biggs et al., 2000; Bouraoui et al., 2002; Wilby et al., 2006a), (iii) greater range and higher average air tempera- tures causing warming of water temperatures in shallow streams, increasing the time window of biological activity, higher rates of primary production, increased soil wetting/ drying cycles, greater rates of OM mineralization and greater dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations reaching the stream with impacts on microbial populations and metabolic rates (Wilby et al., 2006b; Durance and Ormerod, 2007; Harrison et al., 2008).”  Withers and Jarvie 2008 – study on phosphorus in rivers, this quote shows how climate change would also negatively impact the phosphorus cycle
* Climate change can substantially increase future urban runoff volume and peak flow rate (Zahmatkesh et al 2016).
* Zahmatkesh et al 2015 report a potential increase of up to 60% in precipitation in the NYC region by 2030.
* Pyke et al 2011 – Boston scenario for with and without LID vs conventional
* “Burian (2006) assesses drainage infrastructure performance in response to increased precipitation intensity. The results show that upstream parts of urban drainage catchments in the United States may be resilient to precipitation effects of climate change because most development codes have required a minimum pipe size that has resulted in oversized drainage systems. Results also show downstream parts of urban catchments are more affected by in- creased precipitation intensity and thus more susceptible to the effects of flooding from climate change.”  cited in Zahmatkesh et al 2014
* Impacts of weather on buildings, roads, bridges, hydro-transmission lines, stormwater drainage, drinking water and water treatment services, natural gas and communication lines, range from softening of tarmac during summer heat waves and cracking of concrete during freeze-thaw cycles, to catastrophic flooding, road washouts, ice and windstorm damage. The frequency and intensity of all these small- and large-scale effects is changing and infrastructure of all kinds is in danger of becoming subject to conditions for which it was not designed. For example, this means that the environmental performance of some infrastructure, such as wastewater and stormwater infrastructure may become inadequate, which would have impacts on the water quality, water quantity and the ecosystem.  Ontario 2012 (Action Plan)
* “Thus, in order to adapt to the increased winter precipitation expected with climate change, greenspace provision will need to be considered alongside increased storage. There is significant potential to utilize sustainable urban drainage (SUDS) techniques, such as creating swales, infiltration, detention and retention ponds in parks”  Gill et al 2007
* “CC effects were on average two orders of magnitude greater than LU impacts on mean daily stream T. LU change affected stream T primarily in headwater streams, on average up to 2.1°C over short durations, and projected CC affected stream T, on average 2.1 - 3.3°C by 2060.” <ref> Daraio and Bales 2014 – a modelling study that assesses the effects of land use vs climate change on urban stream temperatures </ref>
*Higher temperatures, greater annual precipitation, larger precipitation events, increase in frequency of high flow events. Future climate scenarios predict a 40% increase in future TSS loading. Return periods for critical flows are reduced in future scenarios, while larger storms will be more frequent. Baseflow will decrease with potential impacts on rates of stream aggradation. Increased risk of erosion damages to infrastructure . Stream crossings may need to be larger. Erosion thresholds exceeded more frequently. Greater sediment loading in watercourses. Combines with higher peak flows and lower baseflow, altered sediment transport regimes could change the way our rivers form and adjust. Potential change in vegetation, habitat with increase of invasive species, drying wetlands, stress on fish species in warm and turbid waters.  Karen Hofbauer 2016 NCD 2016 Conference Presentation. Need to contact her in few months to obtain a draft of the study. Based in Hamilton – good local example of potential impacts of climate change to local streams and rivers.
==Impact of observed and projected climate change on urban infrastructure==

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