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Climate change

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Within Ontario
==Within Ontario==
Climate Ready Adaptation Strategy Action Plan 2012. '''Action 10 | Develop Guidance for Stormwater Management ''' The Ministry of the Environment is currently reviewing best management practices in other jurisdictions in support of proposed Municipal Water Sustainability Planning under the Water Opportunities and Water Conservation Act. The review includes municipal water, wastewater and stormwater systems for additional guidance and information on adapting water systems to deal with impacts caused by climate change. Among system issues and practices being reviewed: • source control (reuse and low impact development) • sewers for conveyance • end-of-pipe treatment works • water conservation • inflow and infiltration • by-passes and combined sewer overflow. . Action 3 | Promote Water Conservation - • applying proactive solutions that encourage groundwater infiltration of stormwater, such as increasing permeable surfaces in built-up areas ===MOECCMECP===
MOECC 2014 (Ontario’s Climate Change Update) – Glen Murray intro “To keep reducing emissions with a growing population, we need to build for the future. More energy-efficient buildings, smart urban planning, low-carbon transportation options, and green infrastructure are just some of the solutions we need.”
MOECC 2015 – (Ontario Climate Change Strategy): “Build green infrastructure to restore eco- systems, reduce atmospheric carbon and protect and expand carbon sinks. Green infrastructure is inter-connected networks of green open spaces that provide a wide range of ecosystem services. Benefits of green infrastructure include cooling communities, reducing the urban heat island effect which, in turn, improves air quality and reduces the impacts of heat stress on our health, preserving biodiversity and pollinator health, capturing and filtering rainwater to reduce flood risk and improve water quality, and promoting carbon sequestration to reduce emissions.”
===City of Toronto===
City of Toronto Green Streets Guidelines Draft 2016 – “Green streets incorporate green infrastructure into the road rights-of-way to complement or replace grey infrastructure, to build a city that is resilient to climate change and that contributes to an improved quality of life. Green infrastructure as defined in Toronto’s Official Plan refers to “natural and human-made elements that provide ecological and hydrological functions and processes” (Toronto, 2016). Examples of green infrastructure integrated into green streets can include: alternate energy sources, high efficiency lighting, street trees, permeable surfaces, Low Impact Development (LID) stormwater infrastructure and more.”…” Finally, in May of 2016, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing (MMAH) approved an amendment to policies within the City’s Official Plan (OPA 262) that focuses on climate change, energy conservation, green infrastructure and the natural environment. Adoption of this amendment affects several sections of Toronto’s Official Plan policy framework.”….” The City’s vision was amended to include the following: *a healthy natural environment including clean air, soil, energy and water; *infrastructure and socioeconomic systems that are resilient to disruptions and climate change; and,*a connected system of natural features and ecological functions that support biodiversity and contribute to civic life.”…From Climate Change Adaptation Chapter  “According  According to Toronto’s Future Weather & Climate Driver Study: Outcomes Report (Senes<ref>Theobald, K., Z. Radonijc, B. Telenta, S. Music, D. Chambers, 2012)and J.W.S. Young. 2011. “Toronto’s Future Weather and Climate Driver Study.” Toronto.</ref>, over the coming decades, climate change will produce variable weather patterns throughout the City of Toronto. The study projects some positive outcomes, such as shorter, milder winters with less snow and more rain as well as and longer growing seasons, however it also warns of the occurrence of extreme weather events.”….” The GTSG seeks to assist in climate change adaptation efforts by providing a tool that outlines proper design, construction and care of green infrastructure practices within road rights-of-way that will: * Enhance ecology and reduce heat Island effect; * Protect air quality; * Manage stormwater quality, quantity & efficiency; * Reduce greenhouse gases and promote energy efficiency.”….” "Unlike conventional stormwater management systems, some LID practices have the potential to be expanded to provide additional storage capacity. This will be of critical importance for ensuring that Toronto remains a resilient City in spite of potential future changes in precipitation volumes and patterns that may occur as a result of climate change.”…..o Based on these predictions, the City of Toronto should take aggressive action immediately to not only reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but also to adapt to changes that will be imminent in the coming decades. The City of Toronto defines climate change adaptation as “initiatives and measures taken to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to actual or expected climate change effects.” Some notable examples of “adaptive actions” already being implemented in the City include: *Increasing the size of storm sewers and culverts to handle greater volumes of runoff; *Increasing the frequency of inspection and maintenance of culverts both as part of a routine inspection program and after storm events; *Changing the slope of the land at the lot level to direct runoff away from property that can be damaged by excess surface water; *Installation of basement backflow preventers and window well guards to reduce flooding risks; *Using cool/reflective materials on the roofs of homes and buildings to reduce urban heat island effect.
===York Region===
The Region is increasing its efforts to combat climate change, including adopting best practices for infrastructure design. Other strategies include: *Improve hydrological data collection *Use of models and monitoring localized effects *More frequent monitoring and maintenance *Improve bridge, road and culvert design to be more climate change resistant <ref>York Region Transportation Master Plan 2016</ref>
===Town of Ajax===
The Official Plan for Ajax has extensive content and calls for the promotion of LIDs to treat SWStormwater. they also mention that new infrastructure needs to be sized properly, although they do not specially say if there are new requirements.  Town of Ajax <ref>OCC, GLISA, Clean Air Partnership. 2016. “Historical and Future Climate Trends in York Region."</ref>
===City of Ottawa===
Ottawa (Boliviar Philips 2013): “Green infrastructure and low impact development (LID)10 have many common elements with the objectives of stormwater management adaptation; however, like existing measures and no regret actions, techniques and the promotion of green infrastructure/LID was well developed in some jurisdictions when climate change, mitigation and more recently adaptation began to be considered at the municipal level. The City’s Infrastructure Master Plan promotes green infrastructure however the scope of promotion is limited to giving “greater consideration” to green infrastructure in the context of capacity management of urban systems. This level of commitment is very different from other cities including a number of cities in the northeastern United States with similar climate, anticipated climate change impacts and infrastructure profiles as Ottawa. Some cities have adopted and are moving forward aggressively with green infrastructure plans as a cost effective (and some assert cost saving) plan to address infrastructure deficits, combined sewer overflows, water resource improvements and climate risks .11 The success ” <ref>Boliviar Philips. 2013. “Adaptive Approaches in Stormwater Management for City of Ottawa.” City of these green infrastructure plans is worth noting as a possible avenue for stormwater management adaptation (and many other Ottawa, no regret benefits) in Ottawa and is discussed further in Section 9 (pg. 44)July:81.</ref>
===Thunder Bay===
Thunder Bay – “Climate-ready city: City of Thunder Bay climate adaptation strategy” 2015. Stormwater management is one of 5 areas of adaptation efforts: The way stormwater is managed will be crucial as extreme weather events increase in frequency and intensity. The City's Stormwater Management Master Plan will consider climate change impacts and focus on resilient Low Impact Development (LID) and Green Infrastructure to reduce and treat stormwater while also delivering many other benefits to the community.  GOAL 4. CONSIDER CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS IN THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE OF PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE WHILE CONSIDERING AFFORDABILITY AND CO- BENEFITS: Objective 4.1 Objectives include:#Incorporate new technology and best practices in the design, construction and maintenance of new municipal infrastructure and facilities to minimize service disruption and increase resiliency. Objective 4.2 #Identify retrofit opportunities for municipal infrastructure to minimize service disruptions related to extreme weather events. Objective 4.3 #Investigate areas of priority to incorporate best practices and green infrastructure into community and land- use planning and design. The hectares of catchment areas of LID sites is an indicator of Goal 4. #Develop education and communication materials promoting the use and benefits of green infrastructure. #Prepare a tool kit or resource kit for City administration with information on available best practices and latest innovations in green infrastructure relating to community and land-use planning and design.<ref>Thunder Bay. 2015. “Climate-Ready City: City of Thunder Bay Climate Adaptation Strategy,” no. December:116.</ref>
==Other Jurisdictions==
===IPCC===

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