Berms

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Berms can be used to direct flow of water through permanent ponds, ephemeral pools and constructed wetlands, or on slopes with vegetated filter strips. They may be utilised to divert water through the wetlandA vegetated area such as a bog, fen, marsh, or swamp, where the soil or root zone is saturated for part of the year., creating a longer flow path. This increases the efficiency of the system by increasing the hydraulic residence time. The top of the banks may be below or above water level. Flow diversion banks are usually submerged at nominal operating level.

Design considerations

  • If possible the soil should only be moved inside the site. Selection of the bottom elevation of the wetlandA vegetated area such as a bog, fen, marsh, or swamp, where the soil or root zone is saturated for part of the year., together with proper positioning on the site with respect to its topography, generally allow balancing of cut and fill, avoiding import/export costs and greater environmentRefers to the conditions in which an organism lives and survives or the conditions in which an organism resides. These conditions can be described as aspects of a “physical”, “social” or an “economic” environment, depending on the perspective perceived by the observer. impact.
  • Compaction, the immediate increase in soil density effected by the displacement of air, should (not to be confused with consolidation, which is a slow increase in density due to the gradual

rearrangement of soil particles over time. Compaction affects the future behaviour of any earth structure. Poor compaction results in low strength, high permeability, susceptibility of tunnelling in dispersible clay1. A mineral soil separate consisting of particles less than 0.002 millimeter in equivalent diameter. 2. A soil texture class. 3. (Engineering) A fine-grained soil (more than 50 percent passing the No. 200 Sieve) that has a high plasticity index in relation to the liquid limit. (Unified Soil Classification System)., risk of erosion and risk of slip failure. Motorised rollers are usually used to compact soil. The movement of ordinary machinery during construction may provide sufficient compaction, however this technique should be used with

caution. Internal clay1. A mineral soil separate consisting of particles less than 0.002 millimeter in equivalent diameter. 2. A soil texture class. 3. (Engineering) A fine-grained soil (more than 50 percent passing the No. 200 Sieve) that has a high plasticity index in relation to the liquid limit. (Unified Soil Classification System). plugs may be required to minimise bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. seepage if permeable materials are used for bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. construction. External seepage collection channels may be necessary if soils are unconsolidated.[1]

Height

  • Freeboards should be adequate to prevent over-topping during storm events and allow overflow of less frequent storm events through controlled and protected emergency overflow points. BermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. freeboards should also consider bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. soil consolidation and subsidence, and also that the wetlandA vegetated area such as a bog, fen, marsh, or swamp, where the soil or root zone is saturated for part of the year. can gradually fill with vegetation and with sedimentsSoil, sand and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs, rivers and harbors, destroying fish-nesting areas and holes of water animals and cloud the water so that needed sunlight might not reach aquatic plans. Careless farming, mining and building activities will expose sediment materials, allowing them to be washed off the land after rainfalls. which increase flow resistance and decrease freeboard during wetlandA vegetated area such as a bog, fen, marsh, or swamp, where the soil or root zone is saturated for part of the year. life.
  • Controlled overflow points that are rip-rapped dips in the surface or concrete weirs should be incorporated into the top of the bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. of each wetland cell so that if the wetlandA vegetated area such as a bog, fen, marsh, or swamp, where the soil or root zone is saturated for part of the year. is overtopped the flow exiting the wetlandA vegetated area such as a bog, fen, marsh, or swamp, where the soil or root zone is saturated for part of the year. does not cut channels into the top of the bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. that could compromise the integrity of the bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated..

Top width

  • For vehicle access a bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. needs to be ≥ 3m wide,
  • For foot access a bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. needs to be ≥ 1m wide,
  • Berms ≥ 5m in width are less likely to be fully penetrated by muskrats or nutrias. Furthermore, water containment berms are subject to local dam safety regulations

Slope

BermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. slope is dictated by geotechnical considerations and slope-stability analysis.

  • Maximum bermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. slopes typically used are 2:1 (horizontal: vertical).
  • However, it is better to keep slopes at 3.5:1 or lower angle to minimize sloughing of the slopes into the wetlands while maximizing wetted area in the wetlands.
  • A side slope of 5:1 or greater provides easier egress in case someone falls into the pondA body of water smaller than a lake, often artificially formed. or wetlandA vegetated area such as a bog, fen, marsh, or swamp, where the soil or root zone is saturated for part of the year. contained within.
  • Slopes up to 10:1 or 20:1 are used when a shallow littoral shelf is desired to create vegetation and habitat diversity. The side slopes may be rip-rapped with stone to reduce the potential for erosion or rodent burrowing.
[2]
  1. Bendoricchio, G., Dal Cin, L., & Persson, J. (2000). Guidelines for free water surface wetland design. EcoSys Bd, 8, 51–91. Retrieved from http://www.pixelrauschen.de/wet/design.pdf
  2. CH2MHill. (2014). Wetland Design Guidelines City of Saskatoon. Retrieved from https://www.saskatoon.ca/sites/default/files/documents/transportation-utilities/construction-design/new-neighbourhood-design/wetlands_design_guidelines.pdf