LID opportunities in residential types

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Residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. options

On residential lands, hard surfaces such as roofs, patios, walkways and driveways can all be targeted to collect, treat, and infiltrate runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. The practices you choose will vary depending on neighbourhood and site constraints and landscape ideals.

Landscape alternatives

Landscape alternatives capture rainfall in leafy green foliage, with the intention of increasing infiltration, filtrationThe technique of removing pollutants from runoff as it infiltrates through the soil., and evapotranspiration of rainfall and runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. Well-designed landscape alternatives require little maintenance and less irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47 after establishment than turf.

Landscape alternatives allow homeowners to customize their property’s landscape to their liking. A guiding principle when designing landscape alternatives is “the right plant for the right place”. Using both native and non-native plantsDefined as those plants (including grasses, herbaceous species, shrubs, vines and trees) that have historically existed within a particular area. Native plants have co-evolved with the local ecosystems and natural processes. is acceptable as long as the non-native plantsDefined as those plants (including grasses, herbaceous species, shrubs, vines and trees) that have historically existed within a particular area. Native plants have co-evolved with the local ecosystems and natural processes. are not invasive and do not require frequent watering. Various landscape alternatives are available, including:

Xeriscaping

Xeriscaping refers to landscaping, plantings and gardening practices that reduce or eliminate the need for watering by selecting plants based on their ability to survive with little water. Synonymous with water conservationReduction in applied water due to more efficient water use such as implementation of Urban Best Management Practices or Agricultural Efficient Water Management Practices. The extent to which these actions actually create a savings in water supply depends on how they affect net water use and depletion., xeriscaping was originally promoted in areas with perennial water shortages. Additional benefits include reducing water bills, lowering maintenance requirements, and better plant survival rates and aesthetics during drought periods. Xeriscaping can be used on a lot-by-lot basis or in combination with larger residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. programs. The Region of Peel’s Fusion Landscaping® program is an example of this.

Tree Clusters

Tree clusters are another residential landscape alternative. Tree clusters improve water quality, generate organic soils, absorb greenhouse gases, and provide shade for homes. Tree clusters require larger lot sizes, preferably with no overhead wires. They can be planted as standalone features or as part of a larger residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. landscape.

Rain gardens

Recently installed rain garden in vibrant contrast with turf neighbouring yard.

Rain Gardens

Permeable Paving

permeable pavingAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. driveway

Focus on aesthetic appeal when marketing permeable pavers to homeowners. They come in a variety of colours and shapes, and can be laid out to form patterns or designs that enhance the aesthetics of residential properties.

Permeable paving

Soakaways and Infiltration Trenches

Soakaways, also known as infiltration chambers or dry wells, are excavations in native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin. that are filled with clean granularGravel, or crushed stone of various size gradations (i.e., diameter), used in construction; void forming material used as bedding and runoff storage reservoirs and underdrains in stormwater infiltration practices. aggregatesA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations.. Soakaways are typically designed with a perforated pipe inlet from a relatively clean water source, such as a roof tops or pedestrian area.

When possible, install soakaways in areas where native soils allow for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.. If poorly draining soils are present, an underdrain can be installed to remove standing waterWater ponded on the ground surface..

Where lot size is a constraint, a linear variation known as infiltration trenches can be used. This technique may be appropriate for sites where retrofit space is limited to long strips between buildings or along property lines.

Rainwater Harvesting

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. is the process of collecting and storing rainwater for future use. Harvested water can be used for a variety of non-potable indoor and outdoor uses with minimal treatment. Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. provides an easy, low-cost option for homeowners to reduce the volume of runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. conveyed from their properties to the municipal storm sewer system.

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. systems

Rainwater harvesting systems collect rainwater from roof runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. and store it until it is needed. These systems are often used for irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47, but with additional equipment and proper treatment, this water can be used for flushing toilets. By using rainwater around the home, residents can reduce their water bills while also reducing the amount of stormwater runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. entering the storm sewer system. Rainwater storage tanks come in a variety of dimensions and shapes to accommodate both the size and desired aesthetics of residential properties. Fro four season use, they are usually placed in the basement or buried underground.

Rain Barrels

While they provide similar functions to rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. systems, rain barrels have limited storage space and seasonal function. They are installed at the outlet of downspouts and intercept water draining down roofs for later use in irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47. Rain barrels come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles. Residents can choose a style of rain barrel best suited to their home and personal tastes.