Difference between revisions of "LID opportunities on residential land"

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<h3>'''[[ Take a look at a typical home. What opportunities exist to implement LID?]]'''</h3>[[File:Example20.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.55|]]
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[[File:House_Figure_1.png|thumb|Residential LID options]]
 +
On residential lands, hard surfaces such as roofs, patios, walkways and driveways can all be targeted to collect, treat, and infiltrate runoff. The practices you choose will vary depending on neighbourhood and [[Site conditions: Residential|site constraints]] and [[Planting design|landscape ideals]].
  
  
On residential lands, hard surfaces such as the roof, patio,
+
==Landscape Alternatives==
walkways and driveways can all be targeted to collect, treat,
 
and infiltrate runoff. The practices you choose will vary
 
depending on neighbourhood and site constraints and landscape ideals identified during market research
 
  
 +
Landscape alternatives capture rainfall in leafy green foliage. This allows for infiltration, filtration, and evapotranspiration of rainfall and runoff. Well-designed landscape alternatives require little maintenance and less irrigation after establishment than sod lawns. They are a great water conservation tool.
  
<h3>'''[[Landscape alternatives]]'''</h3>[[File:Example9.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.45| Landscape alternatives can be established in any green space. They are most frequently established in front yards. (Source: Region of Peel)]]
+
Landscape alternatives allow homeowners to customize their property’s landscape to their liking. A guiding principle when designing landscape alternatives is “the right plant for the right place”. Using both native and non-native plants is acceptable as long as the non-native plants are not invasive and do not require frequent watering. Various landscape alternatives are available, including:
 +
*Fusion Landscaping®
 +
*Xeriscaping
 +
*Tree Clusters
  
Landscape alternatives capture rainfall in leafy green foliage.
+
===Fusion Landscaping®===
This allows for infiltration, filtration, and evapotranspiration
+
The  Region of Peel’s [http://www.peelregion.ca/watersmartpeel/residents/fusion-landscaping/index.htm Fusion Landscaping® program] is a great example of a landscape alternative. Fusion Landscaping® combines the lush splendour of traditional gardens with modern, eco-friendly plants. This program uses local market research and social marketing to promote behavioural change, to address residents’ unique needs, and to reduce outdoor water use.
of rainfall and runoff. Landscape alternatives can be
 
designed to require little maintenance and less<br> irrigation
 
after establishment than sod lawns. They are a great water
 
conservation tool.
 
Landscape alternatives allow homeowners to customize
 
their property’s landscape to their liking. A guiding principal
 
when designing <br>landscape alternatives is “the right plant for
 
the right place”. Use of both native and non-native plants is
 
acceptable as long as the non-native plants are not invasive
 
and do not require frequent watering.<br>
 
There are various landscape alternatives available, including:
 
* Fusion Landscaping®
 
* Xeriscaping
 
* Tree Clusters
 
  
<h4><span style="color:blue">Fusion Landscaping®</span></h4>
+
===Xeriscaping===
A great example of a landscape alternative is the Region of
+
Xeriscaping refers to landscaping, plantings and gardening practices that reduce or eliminate the need for watering. Synonymous with water conservation, xeriscaping was originally promoted in areas with perennial water shortages.
Peel’s Fusion Landscaping® program. Fusion Landscaping®
 
combines the lush splendour of traditional gardens with
 
modern, eco-friendly plants.<br> This program uses local market
 
research and social marketing to promote behavioural change,
 
address residents’ unique needs, and reduce outdoor water use.
 
  
<h4><span style="color:blue">Xeriscaping</span></h4>
+
Xeriscaping involves selecting plants based on their ability to survive with little water. Water savings aside, additional benefits include reducing water bills, lowering maintenance requirements, and better plant survival rates and aesthetics during drought periods. Xeriscaping can be used on a lot-by-lot basis or in combination with larger residential LID programs.
Xeriscaping refers to landscaping, plantings and gardening
 
practices that reduce or eliminate the need for watering.
 
Synonymous with terms such as water-conservative,
 
xeriscaping was originally promoted in areas with perennial
 
water shortages.
 
With xeriscaping, plants are selected based on their ability to
 
survive with little water. Additional benefits include reducing
 
water bills, lower maintenance requirements, better plant
 
survival and aesthetics during drought periods. Xeriscaping
 
can be used alone or it can be combined with a larger
 
residential LID program.
 
  
<h4><span style="color:blue">Tree clusters</span></h4>
+
===Tree Clusters===
Tree clusters are another residential landscape alternative.
+
[[Trees| Tree]] clusters are another residential landscape alternative. They intercept rainfall, allowing for [[evapotranspiration]] and for [[infiltration]] of stormwater runoff. Tree clusters improve water quality, generate organic soils, absorb greenhouse gases, and provide shade for homes. Tree clusters require larger lot sizes, preferably with no overhead wires. They can be planted as standalone features or as part of a larger residential LID landscape.
They provide some of the function of forested areas by
 
intercepting rainfall and allowing for evapotranspiration and
 
infiltration of stormwater runoff.
 
[[File:Example10.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.45|Residential rain gardens are a great way to reduce runoff from both landscape surfaces. (Source: Fern Ridge Landscaping)]]
 
Tree clusters improve water quality, generate organic soils, absorb greenhouse gases, and provide shade for homes. Tree clusters require larger lot sizes and preferably no overhead
 
wires. They can be planted as a standalone feature or part of a larger residential LID landscape.
 
<h3><span style="color:brown">'''Rain gardens'''</span></h3>
 
On the outside, rain gardens look like a typical garden. However, their function is much greater than a normal garden Rain gardens are landscaped areas that include a surface depression of approximately <br>150 mm (6 inches) that allows runoff from residential property to collect and easily absorb into the ground. Within the rain garden a special type of soil, referred to as bioretention soil media, can be used to <br>improve the amount of water that gets absorbed by the garden and On the outside, rain gardens look like a typical garden. However, their function is much greater than a normal garden Rain gardens are <br> landscaped areas that include a surface depression of approximately 150 mm (6 inches) that allows runoff from residential property to collect and easily absorb into the ground. Within the rain garden a special<br> type of soil, referred to as bioretention soil media, can be used to improve the amount of water that gets absorbed by the garden and infiltrated into the native soils. Location is very important to a functioning rain garden.<br> When looking at potential locations, look for low areas where runoff can be easily be directed into the garden.
 
Rain gardens are a great option for residential LID retrofits because homeowners can customize <br>the garden to suit their desired style. They can be planted with a variety of vegetation
 
including shrubs, grasses and flowers.
 
[[File:Example11.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.45| Rain gardens are frequently at the outlet of downspouts. (Source: Aquafor Beech)]]
 
A well-designed rain garden can be maintained with minimal care which is a great marketing point for homeowners. In the first two years, the plants will need watering to ensure they become established. <br>After this establishment period, the garden should only need simple maitenance such as weeding.
 
  
<h3><span style="color:brown">'''Permeable pavement'''</span></h3>
+
==Rain Gardens==
Permeable pavement are surfaces that encourage infiltration.
+
[[rain gardens| Rain gardens]] look like typical gardens. However, their [[infiltration]] and [[bioretention]] functions are much greater than normal gardens. By landscaping areas to include a surface depression of approximately 150 mm (6 inches), rain gardens allow runoff from residential properties to collect and to easily absorb into the ground. Within the rain garden, special types of soil, '[[filter media]]' or [[soil amendments]] increase the amount of water absorbed by the garden and infiltrated into native soils.
They can be used in place of conventional asphalt or concrete
 
pavement. These alternatives contain pores, spaces or joints
 
that allow stormwater to pass through to a stone base where
 
it is infiltrated into the underlying native soil or temporarily
 
detained. Types of permeable pavement include:
 
* Pervious concrete
 
* Porous asphalt
 
* Permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP, or just permeable pavers)
 
Permeable pavement can be used for both driveways and
 
walkways. When infiltrating driveway runoff, confirm whether
 
your residential neighbourhood is in a wellhead protection
 
area. Driveway runoff should not be infiltrated if in a wellhead
 
protection area due to the risk of groundwater contamination.
 
Contact your local Conservation Authority for more information
 
on wellhead protection areas.<br>
 
Focus on aesthetic appeal when marketing permeable pavers
 
to homeowners. They come in a variety of colours and shapes,
 
and can be laid out to form patterns or designs that enhance
 
the landscape of residential properties.<br>
 
Permeable pavement may also appeal to homeowners
 
because it typically has a longer life span that traditional
 
asphalt. As well, light coloured pavers typically require less
 
winter maintenance. Water and snow generally seep through
 
the joints of the pavers before ice can form. This reduces the
 
amount of salt homeowners need to use on their driveways,
 
walkways or patios.
 
<gallery mode="packed">
 
Example12.jpg|A driveway paved with permeable interlocking pavers. (Source: Fern Ridge Landscaping)
 
Example13.jpeg|A strip of pervious gravel with large block pavers. (Source: Aquafor Beech)
 
Example14.jpeg|A backyard walkway paved with permeable interlocking pavers. (Source: Fern Ridge Landscaping)
 
</gallery>
 
  
<h3><span style="color:brown">'''Soakaways and infiltration trenches'''</span></h3>
+
Location is very important to a functioning rain garden. When looking at potential locations, look for low areas where runoff can be easily be directed into the garden. Rain gardens are a great option for residential LID retrofits because homeowners can customize the garden to suit their desired styles. They can be planted with a variety of vegetation including [[Shrubs: List| shrubs]], [[Graminoids: List|grasses]] and [[Perennials: List|flowers]].
Soakaways, also known as infiltration galleries and dry wells,
 
are excavations in native soil that are filled with geotextile
 
fabric and clean granular stone. Soakaways are typically
 
designed with a perforated pipe inlet from a relatively clean
 
water source, such as a roof or pedestrian area. When
 
possible, soakaways should be installed in areas where native
 
soils allow for infiltration. If poorly draining soils are present,
 
an underdrain can be installed to remove standing water.<br>
 
Soakaways can be designed in many shapes and sizes. Larger
 
pits can be used on residential lots with lots of available
 
space.Where lot size is a constraint, a linear variation known
 
as an infiltration trench can be used. This technique may be
 
appropriate for sites where retrofit space is limited to long
 
strips between buildings or along property lines.
 
<gallery mode="packed">
 
Example15.jpeg|Construction of a residential soakaway. (Source: CVC)
 
Example16.jpeg|To improve lot drainage and mitigate basement flooding.(Source: Aquafor Beech)
 
Example17.jpeg|The infiltration trench shortly after the turf installation. Instead of turf, plantings could have been incorporated into the design. (Source: Aquafor Beech)
 
</gallery>
 
  
 +
A well-designed rain garden can be maintained with minimal care, which is a great marketing point for persuading homeowners. In the first two years, the plants will need watering to ensure they become established. After this establishment period, the garden should only need simple maintenance, e.g. weeding.
  
<h3><span style="color:brown">'''Rainwater harvesting'''</span></h3>[[File:Example18.jpeg|thumb|right|upright=0.45|Rainwater storage tanks can hold more water than rain barrels and can be installed outdoors above ground for seasonal use, or buried below ground for year-round use.]]
+
==Permeable Pavement==
 +
[[Permeable pavement| Permeable pavements]] are surfaces that encourage infiltration. They can be used in place of conventional asphalt or concrete pavement. These alternatives contain pores, spaces and joints for allowing stormwater to pass through to a stone base, where it infiltrates into underlying native soils or is temporarily detained. Types of permeable pavement include:
 +
*Pervious concrete
 +
*Porous asphalt
 +
*Permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP, or just permeable pavers)
  
Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting and storing
+
Permeable pavement can be used for both driveways and walkways. When infiltrating driveway runoff, confirm whether your residential neighbourhood is in a wellhead protection area. Driveway runoff should not be infiltrated if it is in a wellhead protection area due to the risk of groundwater contamination. Contact your local Conservation Authority for more information on wellhead protection areas.
rainwater for future use. Harvested water can be used for a
 
variety of indoor and outdoor non-potable uses with minimal
 
treatment. Rainwater harvesting provides an easy and lowcost
 
option for homeowners to reduce the volume of runoff
 
conveyed from their properties to the municipal storm sewer
 
system.
 
  
<h4><span style="color:blue">Rainwater harvesting systems</span></h4>[[File:Example19.jpeg||thumb|right|upright=0.35|Rain barrels are a common LID practice promoted by many municipalities]]
+
Focus on aesthetic appeal when marketing permeable pavers to homeowners. They come in a variety of colours and shapes, and can be laid out to form patterns or designs that enhance the aesthetics of residential properties.  
Rainwater harvesting systems collect rainwater from roof
 
runoff and store it until it is needed. These systems are typically
 
used for irrigation, however with additional equipment and
 
proper treatment this water can be used for indoor purposes
 
like toilet flushing and laundry. By using rainwater around
 
the home residents can reduce their water bills while also reducing the amount of stormwater runoff entering the storm
 
sewer system.
 
Rainwater storage tanks come in a variety of dimensions and
 
shapes to accommodate both the size and desired aesthetics
 
of residential properties. They can fit unobtrusively against the
 
home, buried underground, or even placed below a deck.
 
  
<h4><span style="color:blue">Rain barrels</span></h4>
+
Permeable pavement may also appeal to homeowners because it typically has a longer life span that traditional asphalt. As well, light-coloured pavers typically require less winter maintenance. Water and snow generally seep through the joints of the pavers before ice can form, reducing the amount of salt homeowners need to use on their driveways, walkways or patios.
While they provide similar functions to rainwater harvesting
+
 
systems, rain barrels have much more limited storage space.
+
==Soakaways and Infiltration Trenches==
Rain barrels are installed at the outlet of downspouts and
+
Soakaways, also known as [[infiltration galleries]] and dry wells, are excavations in native soil that are filled with clean granular stone. Soakaways are typically designed with a perforated pipe inlet from a relatively clean water source, such as a roof tops or pedestrian area. When possible, install soakaways in areas where native soils allow for infiltration. If poorly draining soils are present, an underdrain can be installed to remove standing water.
intercept water draining down roofs. Water collected in rain barrels can be used for irrigation.
+
 
Rain barrels come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles.
+
Where lot size is a constraint, a linear variation known as [[infiltration trenches]] can be used. This technique may be appropriate for sites where retrofit space is limited to long strips between buildings or along property lines.
Residents can choose a style of rain barrel that is best suited
+
 
to their home and personal tastes. For example, rain barrels
+
==Rainwater Harvesting==
can be decorated to create garden art.
+
Rainwater harvesting is the process of collecting and storing rainwater for future use. Harvested water can be used for a variety of  non-potable indoor and outdoor uses with minimal treatment. Rainwater harvesting provides an easy, low-cost option for homeowners to reduce the volume of runoff conveyed from their properties to the municipal storm sewer system.
 +
 
 +
===Rainwater harvesting systems===
 +
[[Rainwater harvesting]] systems collect rainwater from roof runoff and store it until it is needed. These systems are typically used for irrigation. However, with additional equipment and proper treatment, this water can be used for flushing toilets and doing laundry. By using rainwater around the home, residents can reduce their water bills while also reducing the amount of stormwater runoff entering the storm sewer system.
 +
 
 +
Rainwater storage tanks come in a variety of dimensions and shapes to accommodate both the size and desired aesthetics of residential properties. They can fit unobtrusively against the home, be buried underground, or even be placed below a deck.
 +
 
 +
===Rain Barrels===
 +
While they provide similar functions to rainwater harvesting systems, [[rain barrels]] have limited storage space. Rain barrels are installed at the outlet of downspouts and intercept water draining down roofs. Water collected in rain barrels can be used for irrigation. Rain barrels come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles. Residents can choose a style of rain barrel best suited to their home and personal tastes. For example, rain barrels can be decorated to create garden art.

Revision as of 17:50, 15 December 2017

Residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. options

On residential lands, hard surfaces such as roofs, patios, walkways and driveways can all be targeted to collect, treat, and infiltrate runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. The practices you choose will vary depending on neighbourhood and site constraints and landscape ideals.


Landscape Alternatives

Landscape alternatives capture rainfall in leafy green foliage. This allows for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface., filtrationThe technique of removing pollutants from runoff as it infiltrates through the soil., and evapotranspirationThe quantity of water transpired (given off). Retained in plant tissues, and evaporated from plant tissues and surrounding soil surfaces. Quantitatively it is usually expressed in terms of depth of water per unit area during a specified period. e.g. mm/dayThe combined loss of water to the atmosphere from land and water surfaces by evaporation and from plants by transpiration. of rainfall and runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. Well-designed landscape alternatives require little maintenance and less irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47 after establishment than sod lawns. They are a great water conservationReduction in applied water due to more efficient water use such as implementation of Urban Best Management Practices or Agricultural Efficient Water Management Practices. The extent to which these actions actually create a savings in water supply depends on how they affect net water use and depletion. tool.

Landscape alternatives allow homeowners to customize their property’s landscape to their liking. A guiding principle when designing landscape alternatives is “the right plant for the right place”. Using both native and non-native plantsDefined as those plants (including grasses, herbaceous species, shrubs, vines and trees) that have historically existed within a particular area. Native plants have co-evolved with the local ecosystems and natural processes. is acceptable as long as the non-native plantsDefined as those plants (including grasses, herbaceous species, shrubs, vines and trees) that have historically existed within a particular area. Native plants have co-evolved with the local ecosystems and natural processes. are not invasive and do not require frequent watering. Various landscape alternatives are available, including:

  • Fusion Landscaping®
  • Xeriscaping
  • Tree Clusters

Fusion Landscaping®

The Region of Peel’s Fusion Landscaping® program is a great example of a landscape alternative. Fusion Landscaping® combines the lush splendour of traditional gardens with modern, eco-friendly plants. This program uses local market research and social marketing to promote behavioural change, to address residents’ unique needs, and to reduce outdoor water use.

Xeriscaping

Xeriscaping refers to landscaping, plantings and gardening practices that reduce or eliminate the need for watering. Synonymous with water conservationReduction in applied water due to more efficient water use such as implementation of Urban Best Management Practices or Agricultural Efficient Water Management Practices. The extent to which these actions actually create a savings in water supply depends on how they affect net water use and depletion., xeriscaping was originally promoted in areas with perennial water shortages.

Xeriscaping involves selecting plants based on their ability to survive with little water. Water savings aside, additional benefits include reducing water bills, lowering maintenance requirements, and better plant survival rates and aesthetics during drought periods. Xeriscaping can be used on a lot-by-lot basis or in combination with larger residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. programs.

Tree Clusters

Tree clusters are another residential landscape alternative. They intercept rainfall, allowing for evapotranspiration and for infiltration of stormwater runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. Tree clusters improve water quality, generate organic soils, absorb greenhouse gases, and provide shade for homes. Tree clusters require larger lot sizes, preferably with no overhead wires. They can be planted as standalone features or as part of a larger residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. landscape.

Rain Gardens

Rain gardens look like typical gardens. However, their infiltration and bioretention functions are much greater than normal gardens. By landscaping areas to include a surface depression of approximately 150 mm (6 inches), rain gardens allow runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. from residential properties to collect and to easily absorb into the ground. Within the rain gardenA lot level bioretention cell designed to receive and detain, infiltrate and filter runoff, typically used for discharge from downspouts., special types of soil, 'filter media' or soil amendments increase the amount of water absorbed by the garden and infiltrated into native soils.

Location is very important to a functioning rain gardenA lot level bioretention cell designed to receive and detain, infiltrate and filter runoff, typically used for discharge from downspouts.. When looking at potential locations, look for low areas where runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. can be easily be directed into the garden. Rain gardens are a great option for residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. retrofits because homeowners can customize the garden to suit their desired styles. They can be planted with a variety of vegetation including shrubs, grasses and flowers.

A well-designed rain gardenA lot level bioretention cell designed to receive and detain, infiltrate and filter runoff, typically used for discharge from downspouts. can be maintained with minimal care, which is a great marketing point for persuading homeowners. In the first two years, the plants will need watering to ensure they become established. After this establishment period, the garden should only need simple maintenance, e.g. weeding.

Permeable Pavement

Permeable pavements are surfaces that encourage infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.. They can be used in place of conventional asphaltA mixture of mineral aggregates bound with bituminous materials, used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces. or concrete pavement. These alternatives contain pores, spaces and joints for allowing stormwater to pass through to a stone base, where it infiltrates into underlying native soils or is temporarily detained. Types of permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. include:

  • Pervious concrete
  • Porous asphaltA mixture of mineral aggregates bound with bituminous materials, used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces.
  • Permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP, or just permeable pavers)

Permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. can be used for both driveways and walkways. When infiltrating driveway runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface., confirm whether your residential neighbourhood is in a wellhead protection area. Driveway runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. should not be infiltrated if it is in a wellhead protection area due to the risk of groundwater contamination. Contact your local Conservation Authority for more information on wellhead protection areas.

Focus on aesthetic appeal when marketing permeable pavers to homeowners. They come in a variety of colours and shapes, and can be laid out to form patterns or designs that enhance the aesthetics of residential properties.

Permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. may also appeal to homeowners because it typically has a longer life span that traditional asphaltA mixture of mineral aggregates bound with bituminous materials, used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces.. As well, light-coloured pavers typically require less winter maintenance. Water and snow generally seep through the joints of the pavers before ice can form, reducing the amount of salt homeowners need to use on their driveways, walkways or patios.

Soakaways and Infiltration Trenches

Soakaways, also known as infiltration galleries and dry wells, are excavations in native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin. that are filled with clean granularGravel, or crushed stone of various size gradations (i.e., diameter), used in construction; void forming material used as bedding and runoff storage reservoirs and underdrains in stormwater infiltration practices. stone. Soakaways are typically designed with a perforated pipe inlet from a relatively clean water source, such as a roof tops or pedestrian area. When possible, install soakaways in areas where native soils allow for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.. If poorly draining soils are present, an underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. can be installed to remove standing waterWater ponded on the ground surface..

Where lot size is a constraint, a linear variation known as infiltration trenches can be used. This technique may be appropriate for sites where retrofit space is limited to long strips between buildings or along property lines.

Rainwater Harvesting

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. is the process of collecting and storing rainwater for future use. Harvested water can be used for a variety of non-potable indoor and outdoor uses with minimal treatment. Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. provides an easy, low-cost option for homeowners to reduce the volume of runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. conveyed from their properties to the municipal storm sewer system.

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. systems

Rainwater harvesting systems collect rainwater from roof runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. and store it until it is needed. These systems are typically used for irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47. However, with additional equipment and proper treatment, this water can be used for flushing toilets and doing laundry. By using rainwater around the home, residents can reduce their water bills while also reducing the amount of stormwater runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. entering the storm sewer system.

Rainwater storage tanks come in a variety of dimensions and shapes to accommodate both the size and desired aesthetics of residential properties. They can fit unobtrusively against the home, be buried underground, or even be placed below a deck.

Rain Barrels

While they provide similar functions to rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. systems, rain barrels have limited storage space. Rain barrels are installed at the outlet of downspouts and intercept water draining down roofs. Water collected in rain barrels can be used for irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47. Rain barrels come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles. Residents can choose a style of rain barrel best suited to their home and personal tastes. For example, rain barrels can be decorated to create garden art.