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Groundwater

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Target groundwater separation
'''The target separation between the base of an LID practice and the water table is 0.9 m.'''
==Target groundwater separation==In many areas of Ontario the target separation between the base of an exfiltrating LID practice and the water table is 1.0 m. This is to mitigate risks due to short periods of groundwater monitoring mounding and potentially unobserved seasonal fluctuations. In areas where a 1.0.9 m separation cannot be provided, or where conditions dictate that an even greater separation may be warranted, additional discussion and/or analysis specific to the physical characteristics of the site and the proposed design should be completed. The design practitioner is advised to consult with approval agencies to understand their requirements and/or expectations prior to undertaking work, and to complete an appropriate level of analysis to support their conclusion. The requirement for additional investigation and/or documentation supporting a proposed design may be reduced in areas where ≥ 1.0.9 m separation is anticipated.
Retention of an unsaturated zone beneath the practice :
*Minimizes the potential for functional impacts associated with reduced percolation rates,
*Maintains the physical and biochemical water quality treatment benefits provided within the vadose zone.
==Groundwater mounding==
Groundwater mounding describes the localised raising of the water table beneath infiltration practices. It may be of concern if it affects nearby structures including building foundations.
Note that this is a minor adaptation (metric units and formatting) from the original tool, written and [https://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2010/5102/ hosted by the USGS].
===Reducing Preventing groundwater mounding with underdrainsinteraction===[[File:Drain spacing.jpg|thumb|The yellow box represents the recommended hydraulic conductivity of bioretention filter media]]Mounding of groundwater can be mitigated by correctly sizing Many LID systems rely upon reuse, or evaporation and spacing transpiration instead of infiltration to the pipes within ground. If the underdrain structure. In most large infiltrating LID systems (e.g. site cannot support any infiltration, consider *[[BioretentionRainwater harvesting]], *[[permeable pavingFlow-through planters]] or , *[[dry pondsGreen roofs]], lateral drains should be spaced between 5 - 6 m apart. But when groundwater mounding must be minimized, this distance will be reduced and should be recalculated. ----This recommendation is supported by an analysis of Hooghoudt's equation <ref>H.P.Ritzema, 1994, Subsurface flow to drains. Chapter 8 in: H.P.Ritzema (ed.), Drainage Principles and Applications, Publ. 16, pp. 236-304, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-70754-33-9</ref><ref>W.H. van der Molen en J.Wesseling, 1991. A solution in closed form and a series solution to replace the tables for the thickness of the equivalent layer in Hooghoudt's drain spacing equation. Agricultural Water Management 19, pp.1-16</ref><ref>van Beers, W.F.J. 1976, COMPUTING DRAIN SPACINGS: A generalized method with special reference to sensitivity analysisand geo-hydrological investigations, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI) Wageningen, The Netherlands</ref> in relation to loamy or clayey native soils, where ''K<sub>media</sub>''>>''K<sub>soil</sub>'', finds the first term of the numerator negligible, so that the original equation:<math>Drain\ spacing=\sqrt{\frac{8K_{soil}H\left(D_{i}-D_{d}\right)\left(D_{d}-D_{w}\right)+4K_{soil}\left(D_{d}-D_{w}\right)^{2}}{q}}</math>may be simplified to:<math>Drain\ spacing=\sqrt{\frac{4K_{media}\left(D_{d}-D_{w}\right)^{2}}{q}}</math>{{Plainlist|1=Where:*''K<sub>media</sub> is expressed in m/day*''D<sub>d</sub>'' is the depth to the drain pipe (m)*''D<sub>w</sub>'' is the minimum acceptable depth to the water table during infiltration event*''q'' is the inflow volume expressed as a depth over the entire surface (m)}}[[Blue roofs]].
==Oak Ridges Moraine Groundwater Monitoring Program=Preventing =[[File:ORMGP.JPG|thumb|Depth to groundwater interaction===raster and contours from the ORMGP]]https://oakridgeswater.ca/ Many LID systems rely upon reuse, or evaporation The Oak Ridges Moraine focused program stretches from the Credit and Nottawasaga Watersheds in the west to the Trent River in the east and transpiration instead reaches from the shores of infiltration Lake Ontario northwards to beyond Lake Simcoe and the groundKawartha Lakes. If Within the site cannot support any infiltration, consider publicly accessible maps section there is a depth to groundwater map layer.  ===Other sources of groundwater data===*[[Rainwater harvestinghttp://ontariogroundwater.com/ Ontario groundwater]], *[[Flowhttps://www.ontario.ca/environment-and-energy/map-provincial-groundwater-monitoring-through planters]], [[Green roofs]], or [[Blue roofs]network Provincial groundwater monitoring network map].
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