Underdrains

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Design

Materials

GeotextileFilter fabric that is installed to separate dissimilar soils and provide runoff filtration and contaminant removal benefits while maintaining a suitable rate of flow; may be used to prevent fine-textured soil from entering a coarse granular bed, or to prevent coarse granular from being compressed into underlying finer-textured soils.

The properties of geotextiles vary widely.

See Clogging for notes on their application in LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. structures.

Geotextiles can be used to prevent downward migration of smaller particles in to larger aggregatesA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations., and slump of heavier particles into finer underlying courses. Geotextiles are commonly used on low strength soils (CBR<4). The formation of biofilm on geotextiles has also been shown to improve water quality:

  • By degrading petroleum hydrocarbons[1]
  • By reducing organic pollutant and nutrient concentrations [2]
  • When installing geotextiles an overlap of 150 - 300 mm should be used.

Material specifications should conform to OPSS 1860 for Class II geotextileFilter fabric that is installed to separate dissimilar soils and provide runoff filtration and contaminant removal benefits while maintaining a suitable rate of flow; may be used to prevent fine-textured soil from entering a coarse granular bed, or to prevent coarse granular from being compressed into underlying finer-textured soils. fabrics [3]. Note when expansive clays are present, a non-infiltrating design may be necessary. If used, geotextileFilter fabric that is installed to separate dissimilar soils and provide runoff filtration and contaminant removal benefits while maintaining a suitable rate of flow; may be used to prevent fine-textured soil from entering a coarse granular bed, or to prevent coarse granular from being compressed into underlying finer-textured soils. socks around perforated pipes should conform to ASTM D6707 with minimum water flow rate conforming to ASTM D4491 (12,263 L/min/m2 at 5 cm head).

  • Fabrics should be woven monofilament or non-woven needle punched.
  • Woven slit film and non-woven heat bonded fabrics should not be used, as they are prone to clogging.

In choosing a product, consider:

  1. The maximum forces that will be exerted on the fabric (i.e., what tensile, tear and puncture strength ratings are required?),
  2. The load bearing ratio of the underlying native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin. (i.e. is the geotextileFilter fabric that is installed to separate dissimilar soils and provide runoff filtration and contaminant removal benefits while maintaining a suitable rate of flow; may be used to prevent fine-textured soil from entering a coarse granular bed, or to prevent coarse granular from being compressed into underlying finer-textured soils. needed to prevent downward migration of aggregateA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. into the native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin.?),
  3. The texture (i.e., grain size distribution) of the overlying and underlying materials, and
  4. The suitable apparent opening size (AOS) for non-woven fabrics, or percent open area (POA) for woven fabrics, to maintain water flow even with sedimentSoil, sand and minerals washed from land into water, usually after rain. They pile up in reservoirs, rivers and harbors, destroying fish-nesting areas and holes of water animals and cloud the water so that needed sunlight might not reach aquatic plans. Careless farming, mining and building activities will expose sediment materials, allowing them to be washed off the land after rainfalls. and microbial film build-up.
Recommended criteria for selection of geotextileFilter fabric that is installed to separate dissimilar soils and provide runoff filtration and contaminant removal benefits while maintaining a suitable rate of flow; may be used to prevent fine-textured soil from entering a coarse granular bed, or to prevent coarse granular from being compressed into underlying finer-textured soils. fabric
Percent soil/filter mediaThe engineered soil component of bioretention cell or dry swale designs, typically with a high rate of infiltration and designed to retain contaminants through filtration and adsorption to particles. passing 0.075 mm (#200 sieve) Non-woven fabric apparent opening size (AOS, mm) Woven fabric percent open area (POA, %) Permittivity (sec-1)
>85 ≤ 0.3 - 0.1
50 - 85 ≤ 0.3 ≥ 4 0.1
15 - 50 ≤ 0.6 ≥ 4 0.2
5 - 15 ≤ 0.6 ≥ 4 0.5
≤ 5 ≤ 0.6 ≥ 10 0.5

Performance research

http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4441/7/4/1595/htm


Pipes

Pipes are available with perforations on just one side, these should be situated on the lower half of the pipe. Pipes with 360° perforations should have a strip of geotextileFilter fabric that is installed to separate dissimilar soils and provide runoff filtration and contaminant removal benefits while maintaining a suitable rate of flow; may be used to prevent fine-textured soil from entering a coarse granular bed, or to prevent coarse granular from being compressed into underlying finer-textured soils. or membrane placed over the pipe to reduce the migration of finesSoil particles with a diameter less than 0.050 mm. from overlying media.

Perforated pipes are a common component of underdrains used in bioretention, permeable pavements, infiltration trenches and exfiltration systems.

Pipes should be manufactured in conformity with the latest standards by the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) or ASTM International.

  • Perforated pipes should be continuously perforated, smooth interior HDPE or PVC.
    • Wherever possible pipes should be ≥200 mm internal diameter to reduce potential of freezing and to facilitate push camera inspections and cleaning with jet nozzle equipment.
    • Smooth interior facilitates inspection and maintenance activities; internal corrugations can cause cameras or hydrojetting apparatus to become snagged.
    • A perforated pipe with many rectangular slots has better drainage characteristics than a pipe with similar open area provided by fewer circular holes [4].
  • Non-perforated pipes should be used for conveyance of stormwater to and from the facility, including overflow. It is good practice to extend the solid pipe approximately 300 mm within the reservoir or practice to reduce the potential for native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin. migration into the pipe.

See also: Flow through perforated pipe


Reservoir gravel

Note the uniform size and angularity of this clear stone sample. Note also that the fragments all appear to have a film of fine particles adhering; this material would be improved by being washed prior to use.

This article gives recommendations for aggregateA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. to be used to store water for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.. This is usually called 'clear stone' at aggregateA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. yards.

To see an analysis of Ontario Standard Specifications for granularGravel, or crushed stone of various size gradations (i.e., diameter), used in construction; void forming material used as bedding and runoff storage reservoirs and underdrains in stormwater infiltration practices. materials, see OPSS aggregates.

For advice on decorative surface aggregatesA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. see Stone


Gravel used for underdrains in bioretention, infiltration trenches and chambers, and exfiltration trenches should be 20 or 50 mm, uniformly-graded, clean (maximum wash loss of 0.5%), crushed angular stone that has a porosityThe porosity (n) of a mixture is the ratio of the volume of void-space to the total or bulk volume of the mixture. It is closely related to the concept of void ratio (e) where void ratio is the ratio of the volume of void-space to the volume of solids. n = Volume of voids/Total volume of mixture = e/(1+e) of 0.4[5].

The clean wash to prevent rapid accumulation of finesSoil particles with a diameter less than 0.050 mm. from the aggregateA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. particles in the base of the reservoir. The uniform grading and the angularity are important to maintain pore throats and clear voids between particles. (i.e. achieve the porosityThe porosity (n) of a mixture is the ratio of the volume of void-space to the total or bulk volume of the mixture. It is closely related to the concept of void ratio (e) where void ratio is the ratio of the volume of void-space to the volume of solids. n = Volume of voids/Total volume of mixture = e/(1+e)). PorosityThe porosity (n) of a mixture is the ratio of the volume of void-space to the total or bulk volume of the mixture. It is closely related to the concept of void ratio (e) where void ratio is the ratio of the volume of void-space to the volume of solids. n = Volume of voids/Total volume of mixture = e/(1+e) and permeability are directly influenced by the size, gradation and angularity of the particles [6]. See jar test for on-site verification testing protocols.

Gravel with structural requirements should also meet the following criteria:

  • Minimum durability index of 35
  • Maximum abrasion of 10% for 100 revolutions and maximum of 50% for 500 revolutions

Standard specifications for the gradation of aggregatesA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. are maintained by ASTM D2940


Pea gravel

Template:Pea gravel
  1. Newman AP, Coupe SJ, Spicer GE, Lynch D, Robinson K. MAINTENANCE OF OIL-DEGRADING PERMEABLE PAVEMENTS: MICROBES, NUTRIENTS AND LONG-TERM WATER QUALITY PROVISION. https://www.icpi.org/sites/default/files/techpapers/1309.pdf. Accessed July 17, 2017.
  2. Paul P, Tota-Maharaj K. Laboratory Studies on Granular Filters and Their Relationship to Geotextiles for Stormwater Pollutant Reduction. Water. 2015;7(4):1595-1609. doi:10.3390/w7041595.
  3. ONTARIO PROVINCIAL STANDARD SPECIFICATION METRIC OPSS 1860 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION FOR GEOTEXTILES. 2012. http://www.raqsb.mto.gov.on.ca/techpubs/OPS.nsf/0/2ccb9847eb6c56738525808200628de1/$FILE/OPSS%201860%20Apr12.pdf. Accessed July 17, 2017
  4. Hazenberg, G., and U. S. Panu (1991), Theoretical analysis of flow rate into perforated drain tubes, Water Resour. Res., 27(7), 1411–1418, doi:10.1029/91WR00779.
  5. Porosity of Structural Backfill, Tech Sheet #1, Stormtech, Nov 2012, http://www.stormtech.com/download_files/pdf/techsheet1.pdf accessed 16 October 2017
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Judge, Aaron, "Measurement of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Gravels Using a Laboratory Permeameter and Silty Sands Using Field Testing with Observation Wells" (2013). Dissertations. 746. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/open_access_dissertations/746