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Swales: TTT

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TTT.png

Swale element in TTT menu
Weir elements may be incorporated as check dams for detailed design

It is recommended that grass and enhanced grass swales be modelled using the 'Swale' element in the TTT. A 'swale' has to connect two existing elements within the TTT Bioswales or dry swales, which have amended filter media, should be modelled as bioretention cells. The alternative is to use the 'enhanced swale' within the LID toolbox, but this incorporates fewer design parameters (and doesn't account for infiltration).

A 'swale' as a conveyance element in the TTT (key parameters)
General Info
Upstream Node Name of node on the inlet end of the swale (higher elevation)
Downstream Node Name of node on the outlet end of the swale (lower elevation)
Manning's Roughness Lower numbers indicate less surface obstruction and result in faster flow.
Suggested range for mown grass (dependent on density) 0.03 – 0.06 [1]
Upstream Invert (m) Depth of swale invert above node invert at inlet end of the swale
Downstream Invert (m) Depth or elevation of the swale invert above the node invert at the outlet end of the swale
Cross section
Maximum Depth (m) Depth of the swale
Bottom Width (m) Bottom width of the trapezoidal swale
For a triangular channel, enter 0
Left Side Slope (m/m) Left side slope (run/rise). Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.
Right Side Slope (m/m) Right side slope (run/rise). Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.
Seepage (mm/hour) Infiltration rate of native (or amended) soil
Parameters for 'enhanced swales' in the LID toolbox of the TTT

Surface
Berm height (mm) This is the height of the curb which constrains the overland sheet flow of water. Where the bottom of the slope discharges directly into another LID facility without impedance, the value is 0.
Surface roughness (Manning’s n) Lower numbers indicate less surface obstruction and result in faster flow.
Suggested range for mown grass (dependent on density) 0.03 – 0.06 [1]
Surface slope (%) If the slope > 3%, use Check dams to create temporary ponding, increase infiltration, and slow flow to reduce erosion.
Swale side slopes (run/rise) Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering.; Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati ONRMRL. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume I Hydrology (Revised). 2016:233.https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100NYRA.txt Accessed August 23, 2017.