Difference between revisions of "Swales: TTT"

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{{Clickable button|[[File:TTT.png|400 px|link=http://www.sustainabletechnologies.ca/wp/low-impact-development-treatment-train-tool/]]}}
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{{Clickable button|[[File:TTT.png|300 px|link=http://www.sustainabletechnologies.ca/wp/low-impact-development-treatment-train-tool/]]}}
 
[[File:Swale TTT.png|thumb|Swale element in TTT menu]]
 
[[File:Swale TTT.png|thumb|Swale element in TTT menu]]
[[File:Weir TTT.png|thumb|Weir elements may be incorporated as checkdams]]
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[[File:Weir TTT.png|thumb|Weir elements may be incorporated as check dams for detailed design]]
  
It is recommended that all swales be modelled as a 'Swale', which has it's own menu button in the TTT.
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It is recommended that grass and [[enhanced grass swales]] be modelled using the 'Swale' element in the TTT. A 'swale' has to connect two existing elements within the TTT
For detailed scenarios of enhanced swales, the weir element can be incorporated for checkdams.  
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[[Bioswales]] or dry swales, which have amended filter media, should be modelled as [[Bioretention: TTT|bioretention cells]].
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The alternative is to use the 'enhanced swale' within the LID toolbox, but this incorporates fewer design parameters (and doesn't account for infiltration).  
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+A 'swale' as a conveyance element in the TTT (key parameters)
 
|-
 
|-
|Name||User-assigned swale name
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!colspan = "2"|General Info
 
|-
 
|-
|Upstream Node||Name of node on the inlet end of the swale (which is normally the end at higher elevation)
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|Upstream Node||Name of node on the inlet end of the swale (higher elevation)
 
|-
 
|-
|Downstream Node||Name of node on the outlet end of the swale (which is normally the end at lower elevation)
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|Downstream Node||Name of node on the outlet end of the swale (lower elevation)
 
|-
 
|-
|Length (m)||Length of the swale
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|Manning's Roughness||Lower numbers indicate less surface obstruction and result in faster flow. <br>
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Suggested range for [[Turf|mown grass]] (dependent on density) 0.03 – 0.06 <ref name = SWMM> Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering.; Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati ONRMRL. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume I Hydrology (Revised). 2016:233.https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100NYRA.txt  Accessed August 23, 2017.</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
|Manning's Roughness||Manning's roughness coefficient
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|Upstream Invert (m)||Depth of swale invert above node invert at inlet end of the swale
 
|-
 
|-
|Upstream Invert Offset (m)||Depth of swale invert above node invert at inlet end of the swale
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|Downstream Invert (m)||Depth or elevation of the swale invert above the node invert at the outlet end of the swale
 
|-
 
|-
|Downstream Invert Offset (m)||Depth or elevation of the swale invert above the node invert at the outlet end of the swale
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!colspan = "2" |Cross section
 
|-
 
|-
|Depth (m)||Depth of the swale
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|Maximum Depth (m)||Depth of the swale
 
|-
 
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|Bottom Width (m)||Bottom width of the trapezoidal swale (i.e., open channel)<br> For a triangular channel, enter 0
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|Bottom Width (m)||Bottom width of the trapezoidal swale<br> For a triangular channel, enter 0
 
|-
 
|-
|Left Side Slope (m/m)||Left side slope (run/rise)
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|Left Side Slope (m/m)||Left side slope (run/rise). [[Enhanced grass swales #Design|Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.]]
 
|-
 
|-
|Right Side Slope (m/m)||Right side slope (run/rise)
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|Right Side Slope (m/m)||Right side slope (run/rise). Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.
 
|-
 
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|Seepage (mm/hour)||Rate of seepage loss into the surrounding soil
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|Seepage (mm/hour)||Infiltration rate of native (or amended) soil
|}
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|}  
 
 
The TTT also includes an 'enhanced swale' element within the LID toolbox. In version 1.0 this element does not incorporate checkdams and doesn't account for any infiltration capacity.
 
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Parameters for 'enhanced swales' in the LID toolbox of the TTT
 
|+ Parameters for 'enhanced swales' in the LID toolbox of the TTT
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan = "2" style="background: darkcyan; color: white; align = center"|Surface
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!colspan = "2" |Surface
 
|-
 
|-
 
|width = 210px|Berm height (mm)||This is the height of the curb which constrains the overland sheet flow of water. Where the bottom of the slope discharges directly into another LID facility without impedance, the value is 0.   
 
|width = 210px|Berm height (mm)||This is the height of the curb which constrains the overland sheet flow of water. Where the bottom of the slope discharges directly into another LID facility without impedance, the value is 0.   
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Surface roughness (Manning’s n)||Lower numbers indicate less surface obstruction and result in faster flow. <br>
 
|Surface roughness (Manning’s n)||Lower numbers indicate less surface obstruction and result in faster flow. <br>
Suggested range for mown grass (dependent on density) 0.03 – 0.06 <ref name = SWMM> Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering.; Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati ONRMRL. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume I Hydrology (Revised). 2016:233.https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100NYRA.txt  Accessed August 23, 2017.</ref>
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Suggested range for [[Turf|mown grass]] (dependent on density) 0.03 – 0.06 <ref name = SWMM> Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering.; Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati ONRMRL. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume I Hydrology (Revised). 2016:233.https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100NYRA.txt  Accessed August 23, 2017.</ref>
 
|-
 
|-
|Surface slope (%)||If the slope > 3%, consider using small [[Checkdams]] or weirs to permit temporary ponding, increase infiltration, and slow flow to reduce erosion.   
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|Surface slope (%)||If the slope > 3%, use [[Check dams]] to create temporary ponding, increase infiltration, and slow flow to reduce erosion.   
 
|-
 
|-
|Swale side slopes (run/rise)||Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits [[Enhanced swales]]
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|Swale side slopes (run/rise)||[[Enhanced grass swales #Design|Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.]]
 
|}
 
|}
 
  
 
[[Category: modeling]]
 
[[Category: modeling]]

Latest revision as of 16:17, 23 May 2019

TTT.png

SwaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades. element in TTT menu
Weir elements may be incorporated as check damsStructures constructed of a non-erosive material, such as suitably sized aggregate, wood, gabions, riprap, or concrete; used to slow runoff water. Can be employed in practices such as bioswales and enhanced grass swales. for detailed design

It is recommended that grass and enhanced grass swales be modelled using the 'SwaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.' element in the TTT. A 'swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.' has to connect two existing elements within the TTT Bioswales or dry swalesLinear bioretention cell designed to convey, treat and attenuate stormwater runoff. The engineered filter media soil mixture and vegetation slows the runoff water to allow sedimentation, filtration through the root zone, evapotranspiration, and infiltration into the underlying native soil., which have amended filter mediaThe engineered soil component of bioretention cell or dry swale designs, typically with a high rate of infiltration and designed to retain contaminants through filtration and adsorption to particles., should be modelled as bioretention cells. The alternative is to use the 'enhanced swaleVegetated open channel, with check dams; designed to convey, treat and attenuate stormwater runoff.' within the LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. toolbox, but this incorporates fewer design parameters (and doesn't account for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.).

A 'swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.' as a conveyance element in the TTT (key parameters)
General Info
Upstream Node Name of node on the inlet end of the swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades. (higher elevation)
Downstream Node Name of node on the outlet end of the swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades. (lower elevation)
Manning's Roughness Lower numbers indicate less surface obstruction and result in faster flow.
Suggested range for mown grass (dependent on density) 0.03 – 0.06 [1]
Upstream Invert (m) Depth of swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades. invert above node invert at inlet end of the swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.
Downstream Invert (m) Depth or elevation of the swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades. invert above the node invert at the outlet end of the swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.
Cross section
Maximum Depth (m) Depth of the swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.
Bottom Width (m) Bottom width of the trapezoidal swaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.
For a triangular channel, enter 0
Left Side Slope (m/m) Left side slope (run/rise). Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.
Right Side Slope (m/m) Right side slope (run/rise). Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.
Seepage (mm/hour) Infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. of native (or amended) soil

Parameters for 'enhanced swalesA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades.' in the LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. toolbox of the TTT

Surface
BermA compacted earthen wall that diverts runoff or creates shallow ponding of runoff. In some cases, runoff ponds behind the berm and gradually flows through it or is infiltrated. height (mm) This is the height of the curb which constrains the overland sheet flow of water. Where the bottom of the slope discharges directly into another LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. facility without impedance, the value is 0.
Surface roughness (Manning’s n) Lower numbers indicate less surface obstruction and result in faster flow.
Suggested range for mown grass (dependent on density) 0.03 – 0.06 [1]
Surface slope (%) If the slope > 3%, use Check dams to create temporary ponding, increase infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface., and slow flow to reduce erosion(1) The wearing away of the land surface by moving water, wind, ice or other geological agents, including such processes as gravitation creep; (2) Detachment and movement of soil or rock fragments by water, wind, ice or gravity (i.e. Accelerated, geological, gully, natural, rill, sheet, splash, or impact, etc)..
SwaleA shallow constructed channel, often grass-lined, which is used as an alternative to curb and channel, or as a pretreatment to other measures. Swales are generally characterized by a broad top width to depth ratio and gentle grades. side slopes (run/rise) Suggested value of 3 or 4 if design permits.
  1. 1.0 1.1 Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering.; Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati ONRMRL. Storm Water Management Model Reference Manual Volume I Hydrology (Revised). 2016:233.https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPURL.cgi?Dockey=P100NYRA.txt Accessed August 23, 2017.