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Stone

Revision as of 20:35, 14 November 2019 by Tvanseters (talk | contribs) (Stone mulch)
This rain garden in a school yard uses stone as both decorative edging and for erosion control.
This bioswale in a parking lot uses stone at the inlets and along the bottom of the swale to prevent erosion, as the sides are sloped.

For advice on aggregates used in underdrains, see Reservoir aggregate.

Stone or gravel can serve as a low maintenance decorative feature, but it may also serve many practical functions on the surface of an LID practice.

Stone for erosion control

Aggregates used to line swales or otherwise dissipate energy (e.g. in forebays) should have high angularity to increase the permissible shear stress applied by the flow of water. [1] However, in some surface landscaped applications there may be a desire to use a rounded aggregate such as 'river rock' for aesthetic reasons. Rounded stones should be of sufficient size to resist being moved by the flow of water. Typical stone for this purpose ranges between 50 mm and 250 mm. The larger the stone, the more energy dissipation.

  • Stone beds should be twice as thick as the largest stone's diameter.
  • If the stone bed is underlain by a drainage geotextile, regular inspection and possible replacement should be scheduled as there is a potential for clogging of this layer to occur.

Stone mulch

Finer inorganic mulch materials can be of value applied in areas with extended ponding times i.e. in the the centre of recessed, bowl shaped bioretention, stormwater planters, trenches or swale practices. Inorganic mulches resist movement from flowing water and do not float. Applying a thin layer of inorganic mulch over the top of wood based mulch has been shown to reduce migration of the underlying layer by around 25% [2]. Inorganic mulches which may be available locally, include:

  • Recycled glass
  • Crushed mussel shells
  • Pea gravel

  1. Roger T. Kilgore and George K. Cotton, (2005) Design of Roadside Channels with Flexible Linings Hydraulic Engineering Circular Number 15, Third Edition https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering/hydraulics/pubs/05114/05114.pdf
  2. Simcock, R and Dando, J. 2013. Mulch specification for stormwater bioretention devices. Prepared by Landcare Research New Zealand Ltd for Auckland Council. Auckland Council technical report, TR2013/056