Difference between revisions of "Reservoir aggregate"

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[[File:Clear stone.jpg|thumb|Note the low proportion of fines, the uniform size and angularity of this clear stone sample. Note also that the stones appear to have a film of fine particles adhering, this sample would be improved by being washed prior to use.]]
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[[File:Clear stone.jpg|thumb|Note the uniform size and angularity of this clear stone sample.  
This article gives recommendations for aggregate to be used to store water for infiltration. This is usually called 'Clear stone' at aggregate yards. To see an analysis of Ontario Standard Specifications for granular materials, see [[OPS Aggregates]]. For advice on decorative surface aggregates see [[Stone]]
 
  
Gravel used for [[underdrains]] in [[bioretention]], [[infiltration trenches]] and [[infiltration chambers|chambers]], and [[exfiltration trenches]] should be 20 OR 50 mm, uniformly-graded, clean (maximum wash loss of 0.5%), crushed angular stone that has a void ratio of 0.4<ref>Porosity of Structural Backfill, Tech Sheet #1, Stormtech, Nov 2012, http://www.stormtech.com/download_files/pdf/techsheet1.pdf accessed 16 October 2017 </ref>.
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Note also that the fragments all appear to have a film of fine particles adhering; this material would be improved by being washed prior to use.]]
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This article gives recommendations for aggregate to be used to store water for infiltration. This is usually called 'Clear stone' at aggregate yards.
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To see an analysis of Ontario Standard Specifications for granular materials, see [[OPSS aggregates]].
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For advice on decorative surface aggregates see [[Stone]]
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Gravel used for [[underdrains]] in [[bioretention]], [[infiltration trenches]] and [[infiltration chambers|chambers]], and [[exfiltration trenches]] should be 20 or 50 mm, uniformly-graded, clean (maximum wash loss of 0.5%), crushed angular stone that has a void ratio of 0.4<ref>Porosity of Structural Backfill, Tech Sheet #1, Stormtech, Nov 2012, http://www.stormtech.com/download_files/pdf/techsheet1.pdf accessed 16 October 2017 </ref>.
  
 
The clean wash to prevent rapid accumulation of fines from the aggregate particles in the base of the reservoir. The uniform grading and the angularity are important to maintain pore throats and clear voids between particles. (i.e. achieve the void ratio). Porosity and permeability are directly influenced by the size, gradation and angularity of the particles <ref name = Judge>Judge, Aaron, "Measurement of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Gravels Using a Laboratory Permeameter and Silty Sands Using Field Testing with Observation Wells" (2013). Dissertations. 746. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/open_access_dissertations/746</ref>. See [[jar test]] for on-site verification testing protocols.  
 
The clean wash to prevent rapid accumulation of fines from the aggregate particles in the base of the reservoir. The uniform grading and the angularity are important to maintain pore throats and clear voids between particles. (i.e. achieve the void ratio). Porosity and permeability are directly influenced by the size, gradation and angularity of the particles <ref name = Judge>Judge, Aaron, "Measurement of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Gravels Using a Laboratory Permeameter and Silty Sands Using Field Testing with Observation Wells" (2013). Dissertations. 746. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/open_access_dissertations/746</ref>. See [[jar test]] for on-site verification testing protocols.  

Latest revision as of 20:19, 15 November 2019

Note the uniform size and angularity of this clear stone sample. Note also that the fragments all appear to have a film of fine particles adhering; this material would be improved by being washed prior to use.

This article gives recommendations for aggregateA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. to be used to store water for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.. This is usually called 'Clear stone' at aggregateA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. yards.

To see an analysis of Ontario Standard Specifications for granularGravel, or crushed stone of various size gradations (i.e., diameter), used in construction; void forming material used as bedding and runoff storage reservoirs and underdrains in stormwater infiltration practices. materials, see OPSS aggregates.

For advice on decorative surface aggregatesA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. see Stone


Gravel used for underdrains in bioretention, infiltration trenches and chambers, and exfiltration trenches should be 20 or 50 mm, uniformly-graded, clean (maximum wash loss of 0.5%), crushed angular stone that has a void ratio of 0.4[1].

The clean wash to prevent rapid accumulation of finesSoil particles with a diameter less than 0.050 mm. from the aggregateA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. particles in the base of the reservoir. The uniform grading and the angularity are important to maintain pore throats and clear voids between particles. (i.e. achieve the void ratio). Porosity and permeability are directly influenced by the size, gradation and angularity of the particles [2]. See jar test for on-site verification testing protocols.

Gravel with structural requirements should also meet the following criteria:

  • Minimum durability index of 35
  • Maximum abrasion of 10% for 100 revolutions and maximum of 50% for 500 revolutions

Standard specifications for the gradation of aggregatesA broad category of particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates, and available in various particulate size gradations. are maintained by ASTM D2940


  1. Porosity of Structural Backfill, Tech Sheet #1, Stormtech, Nov 2012, http://www.stormtech.com/download_files/pdf/techsheet1.pdf accessed 16 October 2017
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Judge, Aaron, "Measurement of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Gravels Using a Laboratory Permeameter and Silty Sands Using Field Testing with Observation Wells" (2013). Dissertations. 746. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/open_access_dissertations/746