# Difference between revisions of "Permeable pavements: Sizing"

The following calculation is used to size the stone storage bed (reservoir) used as a base course. It is assumed that the footprint of the stone bed will be equal to the footprint of the pavement. The following equations are derived from the ICPI Manual [1]

### For full infiltration design, to calculate the total depth of clear stone aggregate layers needed for the water storage reservoir

The equation for the maximum depth of the stone reservoir (dr, max, m) is as follows:

${\displaystyle d_{r,max}={\frac {\left[\left(RVC_{T}\times R\right)+RVC_{T}-\left(f'\times D\right)\right]}{n}}}$

Where:

${\displaystyle RVC_{T}=D\times i}$

• D = Duration of the design storm event event (hr)
• i = Intensity of the design storm event (m/hr)
• R = Ai/Ap; the ratio of impervious contributing drainage area (Ai) to permeable pavement area (Ap). Note that the contributing drainage area should not contain pervious areas. R should not exceed 2.
• n = Porosity of the stone bed aggregate material (typically 0.4 for 50 mm dia. clear stone)

On highly permeable soils (e.g., infiltration rate of 45 mm/hr or greater), a maximum stone reservoir depth of 2 metres is recommended to prevent soil compaction and loss of permeability from the mass of overlying stone and stored water.

### For partial infiltration design, to calculate the depth of the storage reservoir needed below the invert of the underdrain pipe

For designs that include an underdrain, the depth of the storage reservoir below the invert of the underdrain pipe (dr) can be calculated as follows: ${\displaystyle d_{r}={\frac {f'\times t}{n}}}$

Where:

• t = Drainage time (hrs), e.g. 72 hours, check local regulations for drainage time requirements.
• n = Porosity of the stone bed aggregate material (typically 0.4 for 50 mm dia. clear stone)

Where the total contributing drainage area of the pavement (Ac) and total depth of clear stone aggregate needed for load bearing capacity are known (i.e., storage reservoir depth is fixed) or if available space is constrained in the vertical dimension due to water table or bedrock elevation, the minimum footprint area of the water storage reservoir, Ar can be calculated as follows:
${\displaystyle A_{r}={\frac {D(i-f')\times A_{c}}{d_{r}\times n}}}$

Where:

Ac = Ai + Ap

Then adjust Ap accordingly to keep R, the ratio of impervious contributing drainage area to water storage reservoir (i.e., permeable pavement) area, between 0 and 2 to reduce hydraulic loading and avoid premature clogging.

Back to Permeable pavements

1. Smith, D. 2006. Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements; Selection, Design, Construction, Maintenance. 3rd Edition. Interlocking Concrete Pavement Institute. Burlington, ON.