LID opportunities on residential land

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Take a look at a typical home. What opportunities exist to implement LID?

On residential lands, hard surfaces such as the roof, patio, walkways and driveways can all be targeted to collect, treat, and infiltrate runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. The practices you choose will vary depending on neighbourhood and site constraints (Chapter 4) and landscape ideals identified during market research (Chapter 5). This chapter will provide examples of residential landscape alternatives and LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. retrofits that are options for a municipal program. For a good “how to” resource for homeowner LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. installation, see TRCAToronto and Region Conservation Authority’s Greening Your Grounds: A Homeowners Guide to Stormwater Landscaping Projects, available for purchase at TRCAToronto and Region Conservation Authority.on.ca. For more technical information and design guidance on LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. practices, see the Low Impact DevelopmentLow impact development is a stormwater management and land development strategy applied at the parcel and subdivision scale that emphasizes conservation and use of on-site natural features integrated with engineered, small scale hydrologic controls to more closely mimic pre-development hydrologic functions.A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. StormwaterSurface runoff from at-grade surfaces, resulting from rain or snowmelt events. Management Planning and Design Guide, available at bealeader.ca

Landscape alternatives

Landscape alternatives capture rainfall in leafy green foliage. This allows for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface., filtrationThe technique of removing pollutants from runoff as it infiltrates through the soil., and evapotranspirationThe quantity of water transpired (given off). Retained in plant tissues, and evaporated from plant tissues and surrounding soil surfaces. Quantitatively it is usually expressed in terms of depth of water per unit area during a specified period. e.g. mm/dayThe combined loss of water to the atmosphere from land and water surfaces by evaporation and from plants by transpiration. of rainfall and runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. Landscape alternatives can be designed to require little maintenance and less irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47 after establishment than sod lawns. They are a great water conservation tool. Landscape alternatives allow homeowners to customize their property’s landscape to their liking. A guiding principal when designing landscape alternatives is “the right plant for the right place”. Use of both native and non-native plantsDefined as those plants (including grasses, herbaceous species, shrubs, vines and trees) that have historically existed within a particular area. Native plants have co-evolved with the local ecosystems and natural processes. is acceptable as long as the non-native plantsDefined as those plants (including grasses, herbaceous species, shrubs, vines and trees) that have historically existed within a particular area. Native plants have co-evolved with the local ecosystems and natural processes. are not invasive and do not require frequent watering.
There are various landscape alternatives available, including:

  • Fusion Landscaping®
  • Xeriscaping
  • Tree Clusters

Fusion Landscaping®

A great example of a landscape alternative is the Region of Peel’s Fusion Landscaping® program. Fusion Landscaping® combines the lush splendour of traditional gardens with modern, eco-friendly plants. This program uses local market research and social marketing to promote behavioural change, address residents’ unique needs, and reduce outdoor water use.

Xeriscaping

Xeriscaping refers to landscaping, plantings and gardening practices that reduce or eliminate the need for watering. Synonymous with terms such as water-conservative, xeriscaping was originally promoted in areas with perennial water shortages. With xeriscaping, plants are selected based on their ability to survive with little water. Additional benefits include reducing water bills, lower maintenance requirements, better plant survival and aesthetics during drought periods. Xeriscaping can be used alone or it can be combined with a larger residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. program.

Tree clusters

Tree clusters are another residential landscape alternative. They provide some of the function of forested areas by intercepting rainfall and allowing for evapotranspirationThe quantity of water transpired (given off). Retained in plant tissues, and evaporated from plant tissues and surrounding soil surfaces. Quantitatively it is usually expressed in terms of depth of water per unit area during a specified period. e.g. mm/dayThe combined loss of water to the atmosphere from land and water surfaces by evaporation and from plants by transpiration. and infiltration of stormwater runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface.. Tree clusters improve water quality, generate organic soils, absorb greenhouse gases, and provide shade for homes. Tree clusters require larger lot sizes and preferably no overhead wires. They can be planted as a standalone feature or part of a larger residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. landscape.

Rain gardens

On the outside, rain gardens look like a typical garden. However, their function is much greater than a normal garden. Rain gardens are landscaped areas that include a surface depression of approximately 150 mm (6 inches) that allows runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. from residential property to collect and easily absorb into the ground. Within the rain gardenA lot level bioretention cell designed to receive and detain, infiltrate and filter runoff, typically used for discharge from downspouts. a special type of soil, referred to as bioretentionA shallow excavated surface depression containing prepared filter media, mulch, and planted with selected vegetation. soil media, can be used to improve the amount of water that gets absorbed by the garden and infiltrated into the native soils. Location is very important to a functioning rain gardenA lot level bioretention cell designed to receive and detain, infiltrate and filter runoff, typically used for discharge from downspouts.. When looking at potential locations, look for low areas where runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. can be easily be directed into the garden. Rain gardens are a great option for residential LIDLow Impact Development. A stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased urban runoff and stormwater pollution by managing it as close to its source as possible. It comprises a set of site design approaches and small scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration and evapotranspiration, and rainwater harvesting. retrofits because homeowners can customize the garden to suit their desired style. They can be planted with a variety of vegetation including shrubs, grasses and flowers. A well-designed rain gardenA lot level bioretention cell designed to receive and detain, infiltrate and filter runoff, typically used for discharge from downspouts. can be maintained with minimal care which is a great marketing point for homeowners. In the first two years, the plants will need watering to ensure they become established. After this establishment period, the garden should only need simple maitenance such as weeding.

Permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil.

Permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. are surfaces that encourage infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.. They can be used in place of conventional asphaltA mixture of mineral aggregates bound with bituminous materials, used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces. or concrete pavement. These alternatives contain pores, spaces or joints that allow stormwater to pass through to a stone base where it is infiltrated into the underlying native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin. or temporarily detained. Types of permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. include:

  • Pervious concrete
  • Porous asphaltA mixture of mineral aggregates bound with bituminous materials, used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces.
  • Permeable interlocking concrete pavers (PICP, or just permeable pavers)

Permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. can be used for both driveways and walkways. When infiltrating driveway runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface., confirm whether your residential neighbourhood is in a wellhead protection area. Driveway runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. should not be infiltrated if in a wellhead protection area due to the risk of groundwater contamination. Contact your local Conservation Authority for more information on wellhead protection areas.
Focus on aesthetic appeal when marketing permeable pavers to homeowners. They come in a variety of colours and shapes, and can be laid out to form patterns or designs that enhance the landscape of residential properties.
Permeable pavementAn alternative practice to traditional impervious pavement, prevents the generation of runoff by allowing precipitation falling on the surface to infiltrate through the surface course into an underlying stone reservoir and, where suitable conditions exist, into the native soil. may also appeal to homeowners because it typically has a longer life span that traditional asphaltA mixture of mineral aggregates bound with bituminous materials, used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces.. As well, light coloured pavers typically require less winter maintenance. Water and snow generally seep through the joints of the pavers before ice can form. This reduces the amount of salt homeowners need to use on their driveways, walkways or patios.

Soakaways and infiltration trenches

Soakaways, also known as infiltration galleries and dry wells, are excavations in native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin. that are filled with geotextileFilter fabric that is installed to separate dissimilar soils and provide runoff filtration and contaminant removal benefits while maintaining a suitable rate of flow; may be used to prevent fine-textured soil from entering a coarse granular bed, or to prevent coarse granular from being compressed into underlying finer-textured soils. fabric and clean granularGravel, or crushed stone of various size gradations (i.e., diameter), used in construction; void forming material used as bedding and runoff storage reservoirs and underdrains in stormwater infiltration practices. stone. Soakaways are typically designed with a perforated pipe inlet from a relatively clean water source, such as a roof or pedestrian area. When possible, soakaways should be installed in areas where native soils allow for infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface.. If poorly draining soils are present, an underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. can be installed to remove standing waterWater ponded on the ground surface..
Soakaways can be designed in many shapes and sizes. Larger pits can be used on residential lots with lots of available space.Where lot size is a constraint, a linear variation known as an infiltration trench can be used. This technique may be appropriate for sites where retrofit space is limited to long strips between buildings or along property lines.

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets.

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. is the process of collecting and storing rainwater for future use. Harvested water can be used for a variety of indoor and outdoor non-potable uses with minimal treatment. Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. provides an easy and lowcost option for homeowners to reduce the volume of runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. conveyed from their properties to the municipal storm sewer system.

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. systems

Rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. systems collect rainwater from roof runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. and store it until it is needed. These systems are typically used for irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47, however with additional equipment and proper treatment this water can be used for indoor purposes like toilet flushing and laundry. By using rainwater around the home residents can reduce their water bills while also reducing the amount of stormwater runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. entering the storm sewer system. Rainwater storage tanks come in a variety of dimensions and shapes to accommodate both the size and desired aesthetics of residential properties. They can fit unobtrusively against the home, buried underground, or even placed below a deck.


Rain barrels

While they provide similar functions to rainwater harvestingThe practice of intercepting, conveying and storing rainwater for future use. Captured rainwater is typically used for outdoor non-potable water uses such as irrigation, or in the building to flush toilets. systems, rain barrels have much more limited storage space. Rain barrels are installed at the outlet of downspouts and intercept water draining down roofs. Water collected in rain barrels can be used for irrigationHuman application of water to agricultural or recreational land for watering purposes. City of Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management November 2006 47. Rain barrels come in a variety of shapes, sizes and styles. Residents can choose a style of rain barrel that is best suited to their home and personal tastes. For example, rain barrels can be decorated to create garden art.