Cost analysis resources

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This collection of tools includes our own and external resources. For a recent review of international research on life cycle analyses of LID stormwater practices see Xu et al. (2019) [1]

STEP LID Life Cycle Costing Tool (Ontario)[edit]

The Sustainable Technologies Evaluation Program has produced a life cycle costing tool specific to Ontario. STEP built the tool after evaluating LID practices and design scenarios for input costs, maintenance requirements, rehabilitation costs and practice designs relevant to Canadian climates. The tool is in a simple to use Excel format and is free to download. STEP LID Life Cycle Costing Tool

Green Infrastructure Optimization Tool (Great Lakes)[edit]

The Greater Lakes Green Infrastructure Optimization Tool gives a preliminary assessment of green infrastructure options. Land-cover types (and technologies) include: Existing and proposed buildings, existing and proposed paved parking areas, walkways and roadways, open space, pasture, meadow, brush, woodland/grassland, woods and bare soil.

GI tool from the Great Lakes Commission

Green Values Stormwater Toolbox (Great lakes, USA)[edit]

A free tool for evaluating the costs and benefits of green infrastructure. It is based on the hydrology of the Great Lakes region, and produced by the Center for Neighborhood Technologies, a non-profit organisation in the USA.

CNT's Toolbox webpage

CNT's Green Values calculator tool

United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)[edit]

The US EPA's National Stormwater Calculator provides a regionalized, planning-level cost estimation tool for LID stormwater practices in the United States that has been recently updated. For an article describing the updated tool see Bernagros et al. (2021) [2].

US EPA National Stormwater Calculator tool

A collection of other cost-benefit analysis resources from the Green Infrastructure team at the US EPA can be found at the following link.

Cost benefit resources from US EPA

CIRIA's BeST tool (UK)[edit]

A tool which monetizes Ecosystem Services (ESS) and Triple Bottom Line (TBL) criteria to assess LID options (described as Sustainable Drainage Systems, SuDS). The tool guides the user to consider some or all of the co-benefits listed below . Whilst the relative values may be useful for assessing options, the currency of this model is in GBP (£).


  • Air Quality
  • Amenity
  • Biodiversity and Ecology
  • Building temperature
  • Carbon sequestration
  • Crime
  • Economic growth
  • Education
  • Enabling development
  • Flexible infrastructure
  • Flood risk
  • Groundwater recharge
  • Human health
  • Pumping wastewater
  • Rainwater harvesting
  • Recreation
  • Treating wastewater
  • Tourism
  • Traffic calming
  • Water quality of receiving water


See also[edit]

  1. Xu, C., Jia, M, Xu, M., Long, Y., Jia, H. 2019. Progress on environmental and economic evaluation of low impact development type of best management practices through a life cycle perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production. 213. pp. 1103-1114.
  2. Bernagros, J.T., Pankani, D., Struck, S.D., Deerhake, M.E. 2021. Estimating Regionalized Planning Costs of Green Infrastructure and Low-Impact Development Stormwater Management Practices: Updates to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Stormwater Calculator. Journal for Sustainable Water in the Built Environment.7 (2): 04020021.