Difference between revisions of "Bioretention: Sizing"
Jenny Hill (talk  contribs) m (→Calculate the remaining dimensions) 
Jenny Hill (talk  contribs) m (→Calculate the maximum overall depth) 

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*Step 2: Select an underdrain pipe diameter (typically 100  200 mm), assign this as an 'embedding' depth. *Note that this component does not apply if a downstream riser is being used to control an extended saturation zone.  *Step 2: Select an underdrain pipe diameter (typically 100  200 mm), assign this as an 'embedding' depth. *Note that this component does not apply if a downstream riser is being used to control an extended saturation zone.  
*Step 3: Calculate the maximum possible storage reservoir depth beneath the pipe (''d<sub>s, max</sub>'', mm):  *Step 3: Calculate the maximum possible storage reservoir depth beneath the pipe (''d<sub>s, max</sub>'', mm):  
−  <math>d_{s, max}=  +  <math>d_{s, max}=f'\times t</math> 
{{Plainlist1=Where:  {{Plainlist1=Where:  
*''f''' = Design infiltration rate (mm/hr), and  *''f''' = Design infiltration rate (mm/hr), and  
−  *''t'' = [[Drainage time]] (hrs). Check local regulations for drainage time requirements.  +  *''t'' = [[Drainage time]] (hrs). Check local regulations for drainage time requirements.}} 
−  
===Additional step for system without underdrain===  ===Additional step for system without underdrain===  
* Step 4: Determine maximum permissible ponding depth (''d<sub>p, max</sub>''):  * Step 4: Determine maximum permissible ponding depth (''d<sub>p, max</sub>''):  
−  <math>d_{p, max}=  +  <math>d_{p, max}=f'\times48</math> 
{{Plainlist1=Where:  {{Plainlist1=Where:  
*''f''' = Design infiltration rate (mm/hr), and  *''f''' = Design infiltration rate (mm/hr), and  
*48 = Drainage time of the ponding (hrs)  *48 = Drainage time of the ponding (hrs)  
−  +  *Note that conceptually the drainage of the ponded area is limited by exfiltration at the base of the practice.}}  
* Step 5: Sum total depth of bioretention, and compare to available space above water table and bedrock. Adjust if necessary.  * Step 5: Sum total depth of bioretention, and compare to available space above water table and bedrock. Adjust if necessary.  
Revision as of 18:50, 25 June 2019
This article is specific to bioretention, vegetated systems that infiltrate water to the native soilThe natural ground material characteristic of or existing by virtue of geographic origin..
If you are designing a planted system which does not infiltrate water, see advice on Planters: Sizing.
Many of the dimensions in a bioretentionA shallow excavated surface depression containing prepared filter media, mulch, and planted with selected vegetation. system can be predetermined according to the function of the component. There is greatest flexibility in the ponding depth and the depth of the storage reservoirAn underlying bed filled with aggregate or other voidforming fill material that temporarily stores stormwater before infiltrating into the native soil or being conveyed by an underdrain pipe. beneath the optional underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. pipe. The order of operations in calculating these dimensions depends on whether an underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. is desired.
Component  Recommended depth (with underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. pipe)  Recommended depth (no underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. pipe)  Typical void ratioThe void ratio (e) of a mixture is the ratio of the volume of voidspace to the volume of solids. It is closely related to the concept of porosity (n) where porosity is the ratio of the volume of voidspace to the total or bulk volume of the mixture. e = Volume of voids/Volume of solids = n/(1n) (V_{R}) 

Ponding (d_{p})  300 mm  See below  1 
Mulch  75 ± 25 mm 
 
filter media (d_{m}) 

 
Choker course  100 mm  0.4 typical  
Pipe diameter reservoir  Is equal to underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. pipe diameter  Not applicable  0.4 
Storage reservoirAn underlying bed filled with aggregate or other voidforming fill material that temporarily stores stormwater before infiltrating into the native soil or being conveyed by an underdrain pipe. (d_{s})  See below  See below  0.4 
Calculate the maximum overall depth
 Step 1: Determine what the planting needs are and assign appropriate depth of media, using the table above.
 Step 2: Select an underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils. pipe diameter (typically 100  200 mm), assign this as an 'embedding' depth. *Note that this component does not apply if a downstream riser is being used to control an extended saturation zone.
 Step 3: Calculate the maximum possible storage reservoirAn underlying bed filled with aggregate or other voidforming fill material that temporarily stores stormwater before infiltrating into the native soil or being conveyed by an underdrain pipe. depth beneath the pipe (d_{s, max}, mm)\[d_{s, max}=f'\times t\]
Where:
 f' = Design infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. (mm/hr), and
 t = Drainage time (hrs). Check local regulations for drainage timeThe period between the maximum water level and the minimum level (dry weather or antecedent level). requirements.
Additional step for system without underdrainA perforated pipe used to assist the draining of soils.
 Step 4: Determine maximum permissible ponding depth (d_{p, max})\[d_{p, max}=f'\times48\]
Where:
 f' = Design infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. (mm/hr), and
 48 = Drainage timeThe period between the maximum water level and the minimum level (dry weather or antecedent level). of the ponding (hrs)
 Note that conceptually the drainage of the ponded area is limited by exfiltrationThe technique of removing pollutants from runoff as it infiltrates through the soil. at the base of the practice.
 Step 5: Sum total depth of bioretentionA shallow excavated surface depression containing prepared filter media, mulch, and planted with selected vegetation., and compare to available space above water tableThe upper surface of the zone of saturation, except where the surface is formed by an impermeable body.Subsurface water level which is defined by the level below which all the spaces in the soil are filled with water; The entire region below the water table is called the saturated zone. and bedrock. Adjust if necessary.
Calculate the remaining dimensions
 Step 6: Multiply the depth of each separate component by the void ratioThe void ratio (e) of a mixture is the ratio of the volume of voidspace to the volume of solids. It is closely related to the concept of porosity (n) where porosity is the ratio of the volume of voidspace to the total or bulk volume of the mixture. e = Volume of voids/Volume of solids = n/(1n) and then sum the total to find the 1 dimensional storage (in mm).
 Step 7: Calculate the required total storage (S_{T}, m^{3})\[S_{T}=RVC_T\times A_c\times C\times 10\]
Where:
 RVC_{T} is the RunoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. volume control target (mm),
 A_{c} is the catchmentThe land draining to a single reference point (usually a structural BMP); similar to a subwatershed, but on a smaller scale. area (Ha),
 C is the runoffThat potion of the water precipitated onto a catchment area, which flows as surface discharge from the catchment area past a specified point.Water from rain, snow melt, or irrigation that flows over the land surface. coefficient of the catchmentThe land draining to a single reference point (usually a structural BMP); similar to a subwatershed, but on a smaller scale. area, and
 10 is the units correction between m^{3} and mm.Ha.
 Step 8. Divide required storage (m^{3}) by the 1 dimensional storage (in m) to find the required footprint area (A_{p}) for the bioretentionA shallow excavated surface depression containing prepared filter media, mulch, and planted with selected vegetation. in m^{2}.
 Step 9. Calculate the peak flow rate through the perforated pipe,
 Step 10. Calculate the peak flow rate through the filter media,
 Step 11. Determine if downstream flow control is required to achieve hydrologic objectives.
Additional calculations
Calculating infiltration practice drainage in 1 dimension
This spreadsheet compares drainage in a single dimension under zero head conditions, mean head conditions and falling head conditions. It provides a more conservative measurement of the drainage timeThe period between the maximum water level and the minimum level (dry weather or antecedent level). for the purposes of groundwater mounding (where a shorter drainage timeThe period between the maximum water level and the minimum level (dry weather or antecedent level). causes a greater impact).
Drainage timeThe period between the maximum water level and the minimum level (dry weather or antecedent level). (3D)^{[1]}
In some situations, it may be desirable to reduce the size of the bioretentionA shallow excavated surface depression containing prepared filter media, mulch, and planted with selected vegetation. required, by accounting for rapid drainageNatural or artificial means of intercepting and removing surface or subsurface water (usually by gravity).. Typically, this is only worth exploring over sandy soils with rapid infiltrationThe slow movement of water into or through a soil or drainage system.Penetration of water through the ground surface..
Note that narrow, linear bioretentionA shallow excavated surface depression containing prepared filter media, mulch, and planted with selected vegetation. features (or bioswales) drain faster than round or blocky footprint geometries.
 Begin the drainage timeThe period between the maximum water level and the minimum level (dry weather or antecedent level). calculation by dividing the area of the practice (A_{p}) by the perimeter (P).
 To estimate the time (t) to fully drain the facility:
\[t=\frac{V_{R}A_{p}}{f'P}ln\left [ \frac{\left (d_{T}+ \frac{A_{p}}{P} \right )}{\left(\frac{A_{p}}{P}\right)}\right]\]
Where:
 V_{R} is the void ratioThe void ratio (e) of a mixture is the ratio of the volume of voidspace to the volume of solids. It is closely related to the concept of porosity (n) where porosity is the ratio of the volume of voidspace to the total or bulk volume of the mixture. e = Volume of voids/Volume of solids = n/(1n) of the media,
 A_{p} is the area of the practice (m^{2}),
 f' is the design infiltration rateThe rate at which stormwater percolates into the subsoil measured in inches per hour. (mm/hr),
 P is the perimeter of the practice (m), and
 d_{T} is the total depth of the practice, including the ponding zone (m).
Groundwater mounding
When you wish to model the extent of groundwater mounding beneath an infiltration facility. This tool uses Hantush's derivation (1967).
Note that this is a minor adaptation (metric units and formatting) from the original tool, written and hosted by the USGS.
 ↑ Woods Ballard, B., S. Wilson, H. UdaleClarke, S. Illman, T. Scott, R. Ahsley, and R. Kellagher. 2016. The SuDS Manual. 5th ed. CIRIA, London.